• The Trinity Lancaster Corpus (TLC) is the largest corpus of spoken texts from learners of English as their second language.
  • The data used in the TLC was collected between 2012-2018 as part of the tests in Spoken English.
  • The corpus has over 4 million words.

extreme adverb + adjective

Let’s look at a few student speaking test examples and one from an expert using extreme adverbs modifying gradable adjectives: There are a few cases in which the parents have been excellent guides to the students, and as you know guides are extremely important for a child‘s career. TLC male India C1   Native speaker: I haven’t read it but I‘ve seen the film, have you seen the film? Student: Yes, I have, but it’s totally different from the book. TLC male India B1   It’s absolutely necessary to find a solution,  and I know that in some cases, for example,  in some sports facilities built in Madrid, they are trying to remodel the space. TLC male Spain C1   These are all details that are incredibly easy to record contemporaneously but are also incredibly easy to forget later on. …

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adjective + noun (range)

Here are real examples of using an adjective before a noun and academic collocation: It’s a pretty accurate description. (listen to this expert example)   He can ask for additional information. (listen to this expert example)   During my school years,  I started reading to get some information  because I was an active participant  in almost all the literary competitions. TLC female India B2   Opening fire will not retrieve them,  and an armed conflict is precisely what the Captain wished to avoid. listen A search in the English …

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TOO adjective + prepositional phrase

– too + adjective + prepositional phrase
– adjective phrases with a very limited range of adjectives + a prepositional phrase

In the English Grammar Profile, in the category of modifying ADJECTIVES, there is an overlap between the two points above. The EGP examples for range are:

… good for my body
… full of people

past perfect simple + adverb

B2 point 54 in the category of  PAST is defined as: past perfect simple with a wide range of adverbs (including ‘finally’, ‘recently’, ‘simply’) in the normal mid-position. B1 point 46 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect simple with a limited range of adverbs (including ‘never’, ‘ever’, ‘just’, ‘always’, ‘already’) in …

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None of | Neither of

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 19 in the category of NEGATION is defined as: ‘NEITHER OF’, ‘NONE OF’ + PRONOUN or noun phrase with the affirmative form of the verb. Expert examples: None of us thought it could happen in America or anyplace else. listen You can not bring up a conversation topic if neither of you is interested. listen STUDENT EXAMPLE: The funny part is when the investigation was done it was realised that none of the family members had actually seen the movie. TLC, Speaking Test, Female, …

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have got to | have to | don’t have to

Here are two student examples of using semi-modal ‘have to’ to express whether something is required or necessary. Another thing is you have to make sure that you have included signal words to help the reader. PELIC Arabic female level 3 writing class.   I mean if someone wears something, you don’t have to wear that because she or he wears it. TLC male Spain B1 speaking test. *Note, the reduced clause ‘you don’t have to‘ is the 9th most …

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the reason that | the place which + CLAUSE

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 Point 4 in the category of FOCUS is defined as ‘The reason (that)’, ‘The place (which)’ + clause as subject + ‘be’ for focus. Expert examples: The reason you‘re alive today is because of those changes in our brains that took place in Africa. TED But the reason that a lot of his fans are in the stands is because of another video. listen Student in speaking …

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RATHER THAN + non-finite clause | phrase

Let’s look at how ‘rather than‘ is used to compare.  In the English Vocabulary Profile, at B1 the meaning is:  ‘instead of ‘ rather than examples: I‘d like coffee rather than tea. I usually wear a swimsuit rather than shorts. In the above examples: coffee, tea, a swimsuit, shorts are nouns or noun phrases, so ‘rather than‘ or ‘instead of‘ are complex prepositions. Here’s …

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After + having | being + PAST PARTICIPLE

Let’s explain some examples of the grammar structure: ‘after being pp‘ and ‘after having pp‘: After being told these stories, I started thinking.                         ( I moved back to India after having spent six years in the US.  ( Firstly, ‘after’ is a preposition before a complement ‘verb-ing’ clause.  For example, …

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a wide range of linking verbs used in other complex ways

To get started, let’s look at some spoken student examples that show a wide range of linking verbs with very literal meanings: It‘s like a fairy tale  because it doesn’t seem real. TLC female Mexico B1   To remain healthy, we have to exercise. TLC female India B1 The verbs ‘remain’ and ‘seem’ link the adjective complements: ‘real’ and ‘healthy’ in a more detailed way than …

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‘major cities’, ‘very beginning’ (major | very + noun)

For this C2 grammar, ‘major’ is an adjective meaning: important, serious, or significant. ‘Very’ is an adjective meaning: actual or precise, with emphasis on the exact quality of the following noun or an extreme point in time/space. Point 73 under the category of adjectives in C2 on the English Grammar Profile these two vocabulary items …

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