• The Trinity Lancaster Corpus (TLC) is the largest corpus of spoken texts from learners of English as their second language.
  • The data used in the TLC was collected between 2012-2018 as part of the tests in Spoken English.
  • The corpus has over 4 million words.


Point 61 in the category of PRONOUNS/quantity is defined as: ‘BOTH’, ‘A FEW’, ‘ANOTHER’ as subject and object pronouns. *We have covered the use of ‘another’ here. A search in iWeb corpus for: . both _V 1 . BOTH ARE 48684 2 . BOTH HAVE 15241 3 . BOTH WERE 15188 4 . BOTH WILL

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extreme adverb + adjective

Let’s look at a few student speaking test examples and one from an expert using extreme adverbs modifying gradable adjectives: There are a few cases in which the parents have been excellent guides to the students, and as you know guides are extremely important for a child‘s career. TLC male India C1   Native speaker: I haven’t read it but I‘ve seen the film, have you seen the film? Student: Yes, I have, but it’s totally different from the book. TLC male India B1   It’s absolutely necessary to find a solution,  and I know that in some cases, for example,  in some sports facilities built in Madrid, they are trying to remodel the space. TLC male Spain C1   These are all details that are incredibly easy to record contemporaneously but are also incredibly easy to forget later on.

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adjective + noun (range)

Here is a nonliteral example of using an adjective before a noun that might be considered A2: It‘s been too long my old friend. listen   Here are examples of academic collocation: It’s a pretty accurate description. (listen to this expert example)   He can ask for additional information. (listen to this expert example)   During my school years,  I started reading to get some information  because I was an active participant  in almost all the literary competitions. TLC female India

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past perfect continuous in a relative clause

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 78 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous in relative clauses to give background information. For example: I was scrolling on social media,  and I saw a friend who had been sharing positive news stories. TED A search in iWeb corpus for: who|that|which had been _vvg gives us the most common continuous verbs found in past perfect continuous relative

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None of | Neither of

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 19 in the category of NEGATION is defined as: ‘NEITHER OF’, ‘NONE OF’ + PRONOUN or noun phrase with the affirmative form of the verb. Expert examples: None of us thought it could happen in America or anyplace else. listen You can not bring up a conversation topic if neither of you is interested. listen STUDENT EXAMPLE: The funny part is when the investigation was done it was realised that none of the family members had actually seen the movie. TLC, Speaking Test, Female,

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have got to | have to | don’t have to

Here are two student examples of using semi-modal ‘have to’ to express either a strong suggestion or that something isn’t required or necessary. Another thing is  you have to make sure that you have included signal words  to help the reader. PELIC Arabic female level 3 writing class.   I mean  if someone wears something,  you don’t have to wear that  because she or he wears it. TLC male Spain B1 speaking test. Listen to

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the reason that | the place which + CLAUSE

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 Point 4 in the category of FOCUS is defined as ‘The reason (that)’, ‘The place (which)’ + clause as subject + ‘be’ for focus. Expert examples: The reason you‘re alive today is because of those changes in our brains that took place in Africa. TED But the reason that a lot of his fans are in the stands is because of another video. listen Student in speaking

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RATHER THAN + non-finite clause | phrase

Let’s look at how ‘rather than‘ is used to compare.  In the English Vocabulary Profile, at B1 the meaning is:  ‘instead of ‘ rather than examples: I‘d like coffee rather than tea. I usually wear a swimsuit rather than shorts. In the above examples: coffee, tea, a swimsuit, shorts are nouns or noun phrases, so ‘rather than‘ or ‘instead of‘ are complex prepositions. Here’s

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After + having | being + PAST PARTICIPLE

An in-depth explanation of the grammar structure ‘after being pp’ and ‘after having pp’. ‘after’ is a preposition used before a complement ‘verb-ing’ clause. For example: “After being told these stories, I started thinking” and “I moved back to India after having spent six years in the US”. In the English Grammar Profile, this structure is defined as a non-finite subordinate clause with ‘after’ + ‘having/being’ + ‘-ed’ form, before a main clause, to refer to past time.

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a wide range of linking verbs used in other complex ways

To get started, let’s look at some spoken student examples that show a wide range of linking verbs with very literal meanings: It‘s like a fairy tale  because it doesn’t seem real. TLC female Mexico B1   To remain healthy, we have to exercise. TLC female India B1 The verbs ‘remain’ and ‘seem’ link the adjective complements: ‘real’ and ‘healthy’ in a more detailed way than

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‘major cities’, ‘very beginning’ (major | very + noun)

For this C2 grammar, ‘major’ is an adjective meaning: important, serious, or significant. ‘Very’ is an adjective meaning: actual or precise, with emphasis on the exact quality of the following noun or an extreme point in time/space. Point 73 under the category of adjectives in C2 on the English Grammar Profile these two vocabulary items

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