• The Trinity Lancaster Corpus (TLC) is the largest corpus of spoken texts from learners of English as their second language.
  • The data used in the TLC was collected between 2012-2018 as part of the tests in Spoken English.
  • The corpus has over 4 million words.

past continuous + adverb (range)

This is another grammar point where the English Vocabulary Profile is probably better at profiling the language than the English Grammar Profile.  There are a handful of adverbs that already make the task across levels quite difficult to follow.  We then should consider the hundred other adverbs that appear in this ‘mid position’. A2 point …

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past perfect simple + adverb

B2 point 54 in the category of  PAST is defined as: past perfect simple with a wide range of adverbs (including ‘finally’, ‘recently’, ‘simply’) in the normal mid-position. B1 point 46 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect simple with a limited range of adverbs (including ‘never’, ‘ever’, ‘just’, ‘always’, ‘already’) in …

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None of | Neither of

Point 19 in the category of NEGATION is defined as: ‘NEITHER OF’, ‘NONE OF’ + PRONOUN or noun phrase with the affirmative form of the verb. STUDENT EXAMPLE: The funny part is when the investigation was done it was realised that none of the family members had actually seen the movie. TLC, Speaking Test, Female, India, C2 Neither|None of * * * * on iWeb: 1 NONE OF THIS …

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BE adjective TO infinitive

The B2 Point 156 in MODALITY and adjectives is yet another overlapping entry for features that are already covered elsewhere.  It is generally defined as: SUBJECT + ‘BE’ + ADJECTIVE + ‘TO’ + INFINITIVE or pronoun or noun + ‘be’ + adjective + ‘to’ + (past) infinitive. STUDENT EXAMPLE: Children do not have serious symptoms, but they‘re likely to get the most complicated cases. …

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able | allowed to

This is another post about overlapping grammar points in the English Grammar Profile. B1 point 76 in MODALITY: ‘BE ALLOWED TO’, PERMISSION B1 point 99 in Modality and expressions with be is defined as: a limited range of expressions with ‘be’ + infinitive (‘be allowed to’, ‘be supposed to’, ‘be able to’) with present and …

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have got to | have to | don’t have to

Here are two student examples of using semi-modal ‘have to’: Another thing is you have to make sure that you have included signal words to help the reader. PELIC Arabic female level 3 writing class.   I mean if someone wears something, you don’t have to wear that because she or he wears it. TLC male Spain B1 speaking test. *Note, the reduced clause ‘you don’t have to‘ is the 9th most frequent 5-word Ngram in English. iWeb 123,895 B2 …

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RATHER THAN + non-finite clause | phrase

Let’s look at how ‘rather than‘ is used to compare.  In the English Vocabulary Profile, at B1 the meaning is:  ‘instead of ‘ rather than examples: I‘d like coffee rather than tea. I usually wear a swimsuit rather than shorts. In the above examples: coffee, tea, a swimsuit, shorts are nouns or noun phrases, so ‘rather than‘ or ‘instead of‘ are complex prepositions. Here’s …

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After + having | being + PAST PARTICIPLE

Let’s explain some examples of the grammar structure: ‘after being pp‘ and ‘after having pp‘: After being told these stories, I started thinking.                         ( I moved back to India after having spent six years in the US.  ( Firstly, ‘after’ is a preposition before a complement ‘verb-ing’ clause.  For example, …

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‘They taste delicious’ (wide range of linking verbs)

Let’s look at some spoken student examples that show a wide range of linking verbs: It‘s like a fairy tale because it doesn’t seem real. TLC female Mexico B1   To remain healthy, we have to exercise. TLC female India B1 The verbs ‘remain’ and ‘seem’ link the adjective complements: ‘real’ and ‘healthy’. Point 48 in the categories of VERBS & linking is defined as: wide range of …

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‘She’s the best.’ (superlative adjective without a following noun)

Which superlative adjective should we learn at higher levels?

‘major cities’, ‘very beginning’ (major | very + noun)

For this C2 grammar, ‘major’ is an adjective meaning: important, serious, or significant. ‘Very’ is an adjective meaning: actual or precise, with emphasis on the exact quality of the following noun or an extreme point in time/space. Point 73 under the category of adjectives in C2 on the English Grammar Profile these two vocabulary items …

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