TLC

  • The Trinity Lancaster Corpus (TLC) is the largest corpus of spoken texts from learners of English as their second language.
  • The data used in the TLC was collected between 2012-2018 as part of the tests in Spoken English.
  • The corpus has over 4 million words.

my | your | his | her | our + NOUN

A1 point 9 in the category of DETERMINERS is defined: possessive determiners ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘his’, ‘her’ and ‘our’ before nouns. A search in iWeb for: my|your|his|her|our _NN 1 YOUR BUSINESS 624027 You need to know a lot of things about how to make your business. TLC STUDENT EXAMPLE male Russia B2 2 YOUR HOME 598828 3 MY LIFE 576086 4 YOUR LIFE 560286 5 YOUR …

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indefinite pronoun + ELSE

The adverb ‘else’ is only a postmodifier. It follows indefinite pronouns. In the English Grammar Profile, A2 point 14 in the category of PRONOUNS: indefinite pronouns with ‘else’ We did a search in iWeb corpus for: _PN1 else 1 SOMEONE ELSE 335976 I would like to choose my sister as a guardian because I can’t imagine someone else. PELIC student: French male level 3 reading …

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determiner + noun phrase (increasing range)

Here’s a student example of a determiner + uncountable noun: My teacher told me “enjoy the music and you will dance naturally.” PELIC Taiwanese female level 3 writing class A2 point 18 in the category of  NOUNS is defined: form simple noun phrases by pre-modifying nouns with an increasing range of determiners. A2 point 24 in the category of NOUNS: form …

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may | might + as well

If you want to make an unenthusiastic suggestion or say you are not enjoying, interested in, or approving of something, then you can use this grammar structure with ‘may as well‘ or ‘might as well‘. Here are some examples.  The first is a student speaking test example: You might as well just open the door to an unknown person. TLC female Mexico B2 Expert …

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‘AS’ + pronoun + ‘USED’ + to-infinitive

In the English Grammar Profile, C2 point 236 in the category of MODALITY is defined: ‘as’ + pronoun + ‘used to’ to add background to a narrative, often to highlight something unusual *Note this is not the “as + adjective + as” structure. Student example in a speaking test: I don’t think that they pay enough attention towards the national customs as they used to do those days. …

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MORE * THAN (complex comparisions)

A simple comparison in English is “She is more important than you.” One way to make comparisons more complex is to increase the number of words between ‘more’ and ‘than.’  This could include nouns or adjectives followed by non-finite clauses such as in the following EXPERT EXAMPLES: Today, billions of citizens have  more tools, more access to information, more capacity to influence  than ever before. TED It‘s harder to compose than to play. TLC native …

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noun phrase + relative clause

Here are two student examples of complex noun phrases using relative clauses as complements: In addition, the people who lived in Korea 100 years ago didn’t have enough transportation. PELIC Arabic male level 5 writing class   Here are some of the things which I got. TLC speaking test female Kannada B2 A2 point 34 in CLAUSES is defined: a defining relative clause with ‘who‘ as the subject A2 point 20 in …

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MAIN | ONLY + noun

Point 24 in ADJECTIVES/position: a limited range of adjectives (‘main’, ‘only’) that limit the noun that they go before. An iWeb search for: main|only _NN 1 ONLY THING 275654 2 ONLY WAY 275017 3 ONLY NEED 78976 4 ONLY TIME 72450 5 MAIN STREET 71594 6 ONLY REASON 70637 TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST: It was my favourite cake and that’s the only reason I used to go to school every day. …

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adjective BUT adjective

Point 21 in the category of ADJECTIVES/combining: join a limited range of common adjectives, after ‘be’. TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST: Driving in the city is cool but difficult. male China B2 A search in iWeb for: _VB _JJ but _JJ 1 IS SIMPLE BUT EFFECTIVE 216 2 ‘S SAD BUT TRUE 181 3 IS SAD BUT TRUE 126 4 ARE SIMPLE BUT …

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Can you believe it?

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 74 in MODALITY is defined: ‘can you believe’ to express surprise PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: Can you believe that my poor mother still did not know that she was dying? Mongol female level 4 grammar class. TLC SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: Can you believe that only in Niger there are one point three million people  who are in critical need of food and assistance due to corruption? female Sri Lanka B1 An iWeb search: 1 Can you believe it? 2387 listen 2 …

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I have to admit

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 72 in the category of MODALITY is defined: the fixed expression: ‘I have to admit’ for emphasis PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: When I want to talk about my weaknesses in writing in English, I have to admit the new words are my main problem. Arabic male, level 4 writing class.   TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: Therefore, I have to admit that it’s true with most old people, but with my parents,  I think that before I was born they hoped that they were going …

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can be

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 98 in the category of modality is defined: GENERAL TRUTHS AND TENDENCIES: ‘can be’ TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: Their students can get good grades and their income can be higher. male China B1 We follow the EGP example patterns in iWeb: _NN can_VM be _R _J 1 RATES CAN BE AS HIGH 102 2 RATE CAN BE …

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WOULDN’T (past willingness)

‘Willingness‘ = being prepared to do something (readiness). In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 105 in the category of MODALITY is defined: negative forms of ‘would’ to talk about willingness in the past. For example: Dad wanted him buried in the family plot in St Louis, but Pete wouldn’t allow it. Philomena Helen, come on! She wouldn’t wait for you. Edward Scissorhands The EGP examples include the bare infinitives ‘wait’ and ‘allow’.  This is incredibly …

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present perfect simple (range)

There is no listing in the English Grammar Profile for a ‘wide‘ range of main verbs with present perfect simple.  So, here’s an expert example of present perfect simple using academic collocation: In the course of my professional life, I have acquired knowledge and manual skill.    (linotype.com) Here are some general range points in the English Grammar Profile in the category of …

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