relative

  • Relative clauses give information about nouns.
  • Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses:
      • who = people
      • that/which = things
      • when = time
      • whose = possession.

defining relative clause TO infinitive

Here’s an expert example of a defining relative clause using TO-infinitive: Several years earlier, she‘d become the first woman to ski to the South Pole. Listen to the sentence. The first woman to ski can be written in another way with the same meaning: the first woman who skied  Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined:  construct defining (restrictive) relative clauses with ‘to’ + infinitive verb …

defining relative clause TO infinitive Read More »

‘You know the person making them’ (reduced verbING clause)

Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined: “reduced” defining (restrictive) relative clauses with verb +-ing. This point will overlap: verb of senses + object + verbing This is difficult grammar to find in corpora since many other structures get caught.  We have done a search with a full stop to narrow out questions.  Our search string …

‘You know the person making them’ (reduced verbING clause) Read More »

WHAT IS IT YOU WANT? (relative clause question)

Let’s analyse questions that have relative clauses to give emphasis.  So usually, we would say something like: What do we want to ask?  What are we trying to find out here? You can see the normal auxiliary verbs ‘be’ and ‘do’ get removed and relative clauses are added in the EXPERT EXAMPLES: What is it that we want …

WHAT IS IT YOU WANT? (relative clause question) Read More »

noun phrase + relative clause

Here are two student examples of complex noun phrases using relative clauses as complements: In addition, the people who lived in Korea 100 years ago didn’t have enough transportation. PELIC Arabic male level 5 writing class   Here are some of the things which I got. TLC speaking test female Kannada B2 A2 point 34 in CLAUSES is defined: a defining relative clause with ‘who‘ as the subject A2 point 20 in …

noun phrase + relative clause Read More »

WHICH (relative clause)

Here are 3 similar A2 points in the English Grammar Profile. Point 25 in the category of NOUNS is defined: post-modify noun phrases by using a non-defining relative clause. Point 23 in the category of CLAUSES is defined: non-defining relative clause with ‘which’ as the subject Point 12 is the same but: defining relative clause …

WHICH (relative clause) Read More »

Many are the + NOUN + RELATIVE CLAUSE

C2 point 117 in PRONOUNS/quantity is defined as: complex noun phrases using an inverted form ‘Many’ + ‘are’ + noun phrase, followed by a relative clause, as a focusing device. FOR EXAMPLE:   NBC News Covid is having a devastating impact on children — and the vaccine won’t fix everything Most of her students are poor enough to qualify for a free lunch …

Many are the + NOUN + RELATIVE CLAUSE Read More »

non-defining WHO (object)

Point 75 in CLAUSES is defined as: a non-defining relative clause with ‘who’ as the object. A search in iWeb for: , who _P _VV 1 , WHO HE SAID 968 2 , WHO I THINK 946 3 , WHO I BELIEVE 495 This is a design by Philippe Starck, who I believe is in the audience at this very moment.     4 , WHO SHE …

non-defining WHO (object) Read More »

THE + noun + WHO|THAT + clause (focus)

Here’s an example of using a defining relative clause for focus: The person who sent me was you. Listen to the pronunciation. B1 Point 73 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: defining relative clauses: ‘the person who/that, the thing that, the (only) one who/that’ as a focusing device. A search in iWeb for: . The _NN that|who …

THE + noun + WHO|THAT + clause (focus) Read More »

WHERE (relative clause)

Point 78 in the category of CLAUSES is described as: defining relative clauses with ‘where’ to define nouns referring to place. For example: Her laptop computer is on the top of the desk where it is easy for her to reach. PELIC STUDENT: Chinese, Female, Level 3, Writing Class. *One could argue that ‘where’ could refer to a situation and not just a physical place, and still have the same …

WHERE (relative clause) Read More »

‘What you see is what you get.’ (CLEFT CLAUSE)

The English Grammar Profile C1 point 10 in the category of FOCUS is defined as: ‘What’ + noun or pronoun + verb phrase as subject + ‘be’, for focus. Note that Pearson lists this point: GSE 59 B2 clauses with ‘What …’ to emphasise the topic or main point. For example: What we need now is a good night’s sleep. What I said was that I don’t need your help. …

‘What you see is what you get.’ (CLEFT CLAUSE) Read More »

defining relative clause without a relative pronoun

Point 36 in CLAUSES/relative is defined as: defining relative clause, without a relative pronoun This is a hard structure to locate in corpora.  We can start by searching for: _NN _PP _VV 1 TIME IT TAKES 41863 2 INFORMATION YOU NEED Korean,Male,5,w Every system, such as ticketing, baggage checking, hotel booking and schedule changing is controlled by computers , and you can get information you need at nearby computers. *our grammar gets hidden by B1 …

defining relative clause without a relative pronoun Read More »

STRANDED PREPOSITION

This post is about two points in the English Grammar Profile found in two different categories and two different CEFR levels.  Differentiating them depends on what prepositional verbs are.  A combination of the verb and preposition has an idiomatic expression with a distinct meaning.  However, the English Vocabulary Profile gives a better idea of the …

STRANDED PREPOSITION Read More »

indefinite pronoun + relative clause (focus)

Point 79 in the category of PRONOUNS is defined as: indefinite pronouns with a relative clause to form complex noun phrases, to give focus A search in iWeb corpus for : . _pn1 that|which|who * * Embedded examples come from the PELIC: 1 . ANYONE WHO WANTS TO 1201 B2/C1 student: 19668,du4,Korean,Unknown,389,5,r,2663,1,41, Anyone who wants …

indefinite pronoun + relative clause (focus) Read More »

fronted preposition + relative pronoun

Wh-relatives can be preceded by a preposition unlike ‘that’ or ‘zero’ relatives.  For example: This is the thing which I am interested in.  (stranded preposition) This is the thing in which I am interested. (fronted preposition) This is the thing that I am interested in. (stranding) This is the thing I am interested in. (‘zero’ relative pronoun and stranding) In the English Grammar Profile, Point 12 in the category of PREPOSITIONs is defined as: preposition + relative pronoun as complement, to avoid …

fronted preposition + relative pronoun Read More »

some of which | many of whom

Here’s an example of ‘some of’ modifying the relative pronoun ‘which’: I have many connections, some of which are less than reputable. Listen C1 point 98 in the category of PRONOUNS and quantity is defined as: ‘some of’, ‘many of’ to modify relative pronouns in a relative clause. A search on iWeb for ngrams of some|many of  _**q _v is listed below. …

some of which | many of whom Read More »

‘…, which is good.’ (evaluative relative clause)

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 Point 100 in the category of CLAUSES is hard to find formally as it is more USE related as the relative clause: refers to a whole clause or sentence, often to express an opinion or evaluation or give a reason. This is also found in PEARSON’S: GSE 61 B2 …

‘…, which is good.’ (evaluative relative clause) Read More »

superlative + THAT clause ‘the best you can’

Let’s explain what a ‘superlative clause’ is with this example: It’s the best car that you can buy. the best is the superlative adjective. that you can buy is the relative clause We can rewrite this as two sentences: It is the best car.  You can buy it. Here the object it is replaced with the …

superlative + THAT clause ‘the best you can’ Read More »