• Relative clauses give information about nouns.
  • Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses:
      • who = people
      • that/which = things
      • when = time
      • whose = possession.

defining relative clause TO infinitive

Here’s an expert example of a defining relative clause using TO-infinitive: Several years earlier, she‘d become the first woman to ski to the South Pole. Listen to the sentence. The first woman to ski can be written in another way with the same meaning: the first woman who skied  Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined:  construct defining (restrictive) relative clauses with ‘to’ + infinitive verb …

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reduced adjective clause

B1+ Reduced Adjective Clauses
We reduce sentences when you have the same subject in the main clause and the adjective clause.
Adjective clauses contain relative pronouns like who, which, or that. The reduced adjective clause
becomes an adjective phrase, which does not have a subject. An adjective phrase does not have a
subject and a verb. Instead, it has a present participle (base verb + ing) for the active voice or a past
participle for the passive voice.
(Mt. SAC Writing Center)

WHAT IS IT YOU WANT? (relative clause question)

Let’s analyse questions that have relative clauses to give emphasis.  So usually, we would say something like: What do we want to ask?  What are we trying to find out here? You can see the normal auxiliary verbs ‘be’ and ‘do’ get removed and relative clauses are added in the EXPERT EXAMPLES: What is it that we want …

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noun phrase + relative clause

Here are two student examples of complex noun phrases using relative clauses as complements: In addition, the people who lived in Korea 100 years ago didn’t have enough transportation. PELIC Arabic male level 5 writing class   Here are some of the things which I got. TLC speaking test female Kannada B2 A2 point 34 in CLAUSES is defined: a defining relative clause with ‘who‘ as the subject A2 point 20 in …

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In the English Grammar Profile, C2 point 117 in the category of PRONOUNS/quantity is defined as: complex noun phrases using an inverted form ‘Many’ + ‘are’ + noun phrase, followed by a relative clause, as a focusing device. FOR EXAMPLE:   NBC News Covid is having a devastating impact on children — and the vaccine won’t …

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the reason why

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 63 in CLAUSES is defined as: THE REASON WHY: defining relative clauses with ‘why’ after ‘reason’, to give an explanation and for focus. *Note that “the reason that…” is B2.  A search in iWeb for: the * reason why 1 THE MAIN REASON WHY 8371 2 THE ONLY REASON WHY …

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defining relative clause (time)

A defining relative clause is a type of clause that gives essential information about a noun or noun phrase. It usually follows the noun it modifies and is introduced by a relative pronoun, such as who, which, that, where, or whose. When the noun relates to time, we can use when as the relative pronoun.

WHERE (relative clause)

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 78 in the category of CLAUSES is described as: defining relative clauses with ‘where’ to define nouns referring to place. For example: Her laptop computer is on the top of the desk where it is easy for her to reach. PELIC STUDENT: Chinese, Female, Level 3, Writing Class. *One could argue that ‘where’ could refer to a situation and not just a physical place, and …

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‘What you see is what you get.’ (CLEFT CLAUSE)

The English Grammar Profile C1 point 10 in the category of FOCUS is defined as: ‘What’ + noun or pronoun + verb phrase as subject + ‘be’, for focus. Note that Pearson lists this point: GSE 59 B2 clauses with ‘What …’ to emphasise the topic or main point. For example: What we need now is a good night’s sleep. What I said was that I don’t need your help. …

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This post is about two points in the English Grammar Profile found in two different categories and two different CEFR levels.  Differentiating them depends on what prepositional verbs are.  A combination of the verb and preposition has an idiomatic expression with a distinct meaning.  However, the English Vocabulary Profile gives a better idea of the …


fronted preposition + relative pronoun

Wh-relatives can be preceded by a preposition unlike ‘that’ or ‘zero’ relatives.  For example: This is the thing which I am interested in.  (stranded preposition) This is the thing in which I am interested. (fronted preposition) This is the thing that I am interested in. (stranding) This is the thing I am interested in. (‘zero’ relative pronoun and stranding) In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 12 in the category of PREPOSITIONs is defined as: preposition + relative pronoun as complement, to …

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past perfect continuous in a relative clause

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 78 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous in relative clauses to give background information. For example: I was scrolling on social media,  and I saw a friend who had been sharing positive news stories. TED A search in iWeb corpus for: who|that|which had been _vvg gives us the most common continuous verbs found in past perfect continuous relative …

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some of which | many of whom

Here’s an example of ‘some of’ modifying the relative pronoun ‘which’: I have many connections, some of which are less than reputable. Listen In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 98 in the category of PRONOUNS / quantity is defined as: ‘some of’, ‘many of’ to modify relative pronouns in a relative clause. A search on iWeb for ngrams of some|many of  _**q …

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the reason that | the place which + CLAUSE

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 Point 4 in the category of FOCUS is defined as ‘The reason (that)’, ‘The place (which)’ + clause as subject + ‘be’ for focus. Expert examples: The reason you‘re alive today is because of those changes in our brains that took place in Africa. TED But the reason that a lot of his fans are in the stands is because of another video. listen Student in speaking …

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