relative

  • Relative clauses give information about nouns.
  • Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses:
      • who = people
      • that/which = things
      • when = time
      • whose = possession.

defining relative clause TO infinitive

Here’s an expert example of a defining relative clause using TO-infinitive: Several years earlier, she‘d become the first woman to ski to the South Pole. Listen to the sentence. The first woman to ski can be written in another way with the same meaning: the first woman who skied  Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined:  construct defining (restrictive) relative clauses with ‘to’ + infinitive verb …

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‘You know the person making them’ (reduced verbING clause)

Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined: “reduced” defining (restrictive) relative clauses with verb +-ing. This point will overlap: verb of senses + object + verbing This is difficult grammar to find in corpora since many other structures get caught.  We have done a search with a full stop to narrow out questions.  Our search string …

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WHAT IS IT YOU WANT? (relative clause question)

Let’s analyse questions that have relative clauses to give emphasis.  So usually, we would say something like: What do we want to ask?  What are we trying to find out here? You can see the normal auxiliary verbs ‘be’ and ‘do’ get removed and relative clauses are added in the EXPERT EXAMPLES: What is it that we want …

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WHO (subject – relative clause)

Point 34 in CLAUSES is defined: a defining relative clause with ‘who’ as the subject PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: In addition, the people who lived in Korea 100 years ago didn’t have enough transportation. Arabic male level 5 writing class. An iWeb search for: _NN who_P _VV 1 PEOPLE WHO WANT 42175 2 PEOPLE WHO LIVE 26622 3 PEOPLE WHO WORK 20667 4 PEOPLE WHO USE 18728 …

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WHICH (relative clause)

Point 23 in the category of CLAUSES is defined: non-defining relative clause with ‘which’ as the subject Point 12 is the same but: defining relative clause with ‘which’ as the subject. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: She is coming out from the KITSON which is located in LA and is a department store. Korean male level 3 writing class. An iWeb search for: _N which _VV 1 WHICH BRINGS 9614 2 …

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Many are the + NOUN + RELATIVE CLAUSE

Point 117 in PRONOUNS/quantity is defined as: complex noun phrases using an inverted form ‘Many’ + ‘are’ + noun phrase, followed by a relative clause, as a focusing device. FOR EXAMPLE:   NBC News Covid is having a devastating impact on children — and the vaccine won’t fix everything Most of her students are poor enough to qualify for a free lunch and many …

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non-defining WHO (object)

Point 75 in CLAUSES is defined as: a non-defining relative clause with ‘who’ as the object. A search in iWeb for: , who _P _VV 1 , WHO HE SAID 968 2 , WHO I THINK 946 3 , WHO I BELIEVE 495 This is a design by Philippe Starck, who I believe is in the audience at this very moment.     4 , WHO SHE …

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THE + noun + WHO|THAT + clause (focus)

Point 73 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: defining relative clauses: ‘the person who/that, the thing that, the (only) one who/that’ as a focusing device. A search in iWeb for: . The _NN that|who 1 . THE FACT THAT 85135 (this probably more B2) 2 . THE PEOPLE WHO 11433 3 . THE …

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WHERE (relative clause)

Point 78 in the category of CLAUSES is described as: defining relative clauses with ‘where’ to define nouns referring to place. For example: Her laptop computer is on the top of the desk where it is easy for her to reach. PELIC STUDENT: Chinese, Female, Level 3, Writing Class. *One could argue that ‘where’ could refer to a situation and not just a physical place, and still have the same …

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‘What you see is what you get.’ (CLEFT CLAUSE)

The English Grammar Profile C1 point 10 in the category of FOCUS is defined as: ‘What’ + noun or pronoun + verb phrase as subject + ‘be’, for focus. Note that Pearson lists this point: GSE 59 B2 clauses with ‘What …’ to emphasise the topic or main point. For example: What we need now is a good night’s sleep. What I said was that I don’t need your help. …

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defining relative clause without a relative pronoun

Point 36 in CLAUSES/relative is defined as: defining relative clause, without a relative pronoun This is a hard structure to locate in corpora.  We can start by searching for: _NN _PP _VV 1 TIME IT TAKES 41863 2 INFORMATION YOU NEED Korean,Male,5,w Every system, such as ticketing, baggage checking, hotel booking and schedule changing is controlled by computers , and you can get information you need at nearby computers. *our grammar gets hidden by B1 …

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STRANDED PREPOSITION

This post is about two points in the English Grammar Profile found in two different categories and two different CEFR levels.  Differentiating them depends on what prepositional verbs are.  A combination of the verb and preposition has an idiomatic expression with a distinct meaning.  However, the English Vocabulary Profile gives a better idea of the …

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indefinite pronoun + relative clause (focus)

Point 79 in the category of PRONOUNS is defined as: indefinite pronouns with a relative clause to form complex noun phrases, to give focus A search in iWeb corpus for : . _pn1 that|which|who * * Embedded examples come from the PELIC: 1 . ANYONE WHO WANTS TO 1201 B2/C1 student: 19668,du4,Korean,Unknown,389,5,r,2663,1,41, Anyone who wants …

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preposition + relative pronoun

Point 12 in the category of PREPOSITIONs is defined as: preposition + relative pronoun as complement, to avoid preposition stranding, often in formal contexts. The EGP examples include:   vacancy_NN1 in_II which_DDQ I_PPIS1 am_VBM very_RG interested_JJ ._. club_NN1 of_IO which_DDQ you_PPY are_VBR  the_AT secretary_NN1 ._. someone_PN1 to_II whom_PNQO  they_PPHS2 can_VM talk_VVI ._.   A search …

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‘…, which is good.’ (evaluative relative clause)

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 Point 100 in the category of CLAUSES is hard to find formally as it is more USE related as the relative clause: refers to a whole clause or sentence, often to express an opinion or evaluation or give a reason. This is also found in PEARSON’S: GSE 61 B2 …

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