A monotransitive verb requires a subject and a direct object in order to form a sentence.
- The subject usually has a ‘doer’ role (agentive role) with transitive or intransitive verbs. “I drove the car.”
- The subject has the ‘identified or characterized’ role before copular verbs like forms of ‘BE‘. “It is old.”
- In the above examples, you can see the subject of the sentence normally comes before the verb in statements. But this order is often inverted in various structures such as questions.
- The subject ‘you’ is omitted with imperatives.
- The subject and verb need to agree in number and person.
This information explains what a pronoun is and how it can replace a noun or another pronoun. It also lists the personal pronouns in English and their meanings depending on who or what they refer to. It also uses meta-language to describe the grammatical features of each pronoun, such as person, number, gender, and case.
It is easy to find noun phrases functioning as a subject-predicate in a clause. For example, “I was a kid.” ‘a kid’ is a noun phrase after the copular verb ‘was.’ An iWeb search for: _P _VB _A _NN . 1 I WAS A KID . 7523 2 I WAS A CHILD . 2942 3
Here is an example of a longer noun phrase as the subject of a sentence: The rest of the time is spent in classes. spectator.org Not all of these will be the subject of the sentence… A search in iWeb corpus for . _A _N _I _A 1 . THE REST OF THE 36076 COCA 1 . THE REST OF THE
Here are EXPERT EXAMPLES of subject and verb ellipsis after ‘if’: When you speak your character’s words, you can hear whether they sound natural, and fix them if necessary. TED *If necessary = if it is necessary. Unlike the billions of people who have few options, if any, due to war, poverty, or illness, you have plentiful opportunities to live decisively. TED *if any = if there are any. Planet Radio If in doubt, don’t drive. *if in doubt = in you are in
NOT ONLY MUST people go to the event, but they must also be respectful there.
NEVER MUST they forget what the soldiers died for.
You must not ask about it when we are there. NOR MUST I be expected to explain it.
This passage discusses the use of “a lot” and “much” as subject pronouns in English. It provides examples of how these words are used in sentences, as well as the frequency with which they appear in the iWeb corpus. The passage also discusses the C1 and C2 levels of these words in the EGP and EVP.
Point 111 in PRONOUNS: the possessive pronoun ‘hers’ with singular reference, in subject position. Point 112 in PRONOUNS: the possessive pronoun ‘theirs’, with singular and plural reference, in subject position. *NOTE that there is no EGP point for hers as a subject with a plural reference. This probably means that plural reference would be C2.
Defining relative clauses, also known as restrictive relative clauses, provide essential information about the noun they refer to. This information is crucial for defining or restricting the meaning of the noun.
When the noun refers to a person, ‘who’ is often used as the subject of a defining relative clause. For example, in the sentence “The woman who lives next door is a doctor,” ‘who’ is the subject of the clause and refers back to ‘the woman’. The clause “who lives next door” provides essential information about which woman is being referred to.
On the other hand, ‘that’ can also be used as a subject in defining relative clauses when referring to both people and things. For instance, in the sentence “He’s the man that saw me yesterday,” ‘that’ refers to ‘the man’, and the clause “that saw me yesterday” tells us which man is being referred to.
A comprehensive overview of how the relative pronoun “which” is used in English grammar.
The examples clearly illustrate the difference between defining and non-defining relative clauses. In defining relative clauses, “which” provides essential information about the noun, as in “The book which lies on the table is mine.” In non-defining relative clauses, “which” provides additional information that doesn’t change the basic meaning of the noun, as in “I visited Paris, which is known for its beautiful architecture.”
The examples from the iWeb search also demonstrate how “which” can be used to connect discourse and introduce a clause that explains a result, inference, or consequence of a situation or fact. For instance, “Our team has won every match this season, which brings us to the top of the league.”
The AI-generated sentences using the corpus data are also very helpful in understanding how “which” can be used in various contexts. For example, “We’ve developed a system which allows users to easily track their progress.”
B1 Point 116 in the category of MODALITY is defined: ellipted ‘must’ without a subject *Note the general B2 subject pronoun ellipsis A search in iWeb for: . must _VVI *also note that this grammar is either non-existent in PELIC student writing or very difficult to locate in TLC or on Google. The example come
Here’s an example of indefinite pronouns as subjects in two clauses with singular verbs: Nobody wants to help when something goes wrong. Point 39 in the category of PRONOUNS/indefinite is defined as: increasing range of indefinite pronouns (‘something’, ‘nobody’) as subjects, with a singular verb. *Remember the inflectional -s at the end of a verb indicates that the verb is the
Point 57 in the category of PRONOUNS/possessive is defined as: yours with singular reference in subject position. FOR EXAMPLE: The world needs every voice and perspective, and yours is included. A search in iWeb for: yours _VV 1 YOURS LOOKS 1874 2 YOURS LOOK 1099 3 YOURS SOUNDS 428 4 YOURS SEEMS 380 5 YOURS TURNED 346 6 YOURS STAND 340 7 YOURS CAME
Point 61 in the category of PRONOUNS/quantity is defined as: ‘BOTH’, ‘A FEW’, ‘ANOTHER’ as subject and object pronouns. *We have covered the use of ‘another’ here. A search in iWeb corpus for: . both _V 1 . BOTH ARE 48684 2 . BOTH HAVE 15241 3 . BOTH WERE 15188 4 . BOTH WILL
Here are two examples of ‘focus’ in English grammar, using ‘the one that + clause’ in the subject position: The one that comes in the box, his colleague told him, was notorious for making users’ faces itchy and red. The Wall Street Journal The ones that make you look older, or even the ones where you turn into a hot dog are still really engaging. Mobile Marketing Magazine In the English Grammar Profile, C2 point 114 in the category of PRONOUNS/substitution is defined
A cleft construction beginning with “it” to emphasize the subject of the main clause is called an it-cleft. It is a type of sentence that divides the clause into two parts:
The cleft phrase, which is the part of the sentence that is being emphasized.
The relative clause, which provides more information about the cleft phrase.
How | What + about + NOUN PHRASE ? = A2 suggesting or offering something to someone | B1 ask for someone’s opinion on a particular subject (EVP)
In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 67 in the category of CLAUSES/interrogatives is defined as:
questions with a ‘wh-‘ word as the subject, without an auxiliary verb.
Here are two grammar points from the English Grammar Profile. A2 point 3 in the category of PASSIVES: present simple passive affirmative with a singular subject. B1 point 13 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: PRESENT SIMPLE, AFFIRMATIVE with a range of pronoun and noun subjects. For example: The proposed mission is called the Uranus Orbiter and Probe and would shed some light on the mostly unexplored ice giant.