COULD (range)

A2 point 52 in MODALITY:

‘could’ with a limited range of verbs to make suggestions.

A2 point 27 in MODALITY:

negative form

B1 point 78 in MODALITY:

affirmative form of ‘could’ to talk about ability.

B1 point 79 in MODALITY:

‘could’ with an increasing range of verbs to make suggestions.

IF clause + imperative

Here are two English Grammar Profile points at A2 that overlap formally. Point 9 in the category of CLAUSES/conditional is defined: ‘if’ + present simple, with an imperative in the main clause. Point 22 in the category of CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: HEDGING: ‘if-‘ clause (‘if you want’, ‘like’, ‘prefer’) to soften the directness of …

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suggest | recommend | insist + present simple

C1 English Grammar Profile point 62 in the category of FUTURE is defined as: present simple after speech act verbs expressing suggestions and obligation. For example: l cannot recommend that you go heliskiing. listen   But remember where we left off because I insist you finish later. listen This is not easily located formally in corpora but we can start with a search in iWeb for the speech act verbs …

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Here’s a student example of using ‘should’ with explanations: Finally, I think people should not watch TV a lot because that is going to affect their life in many ways,  such as their work and their health. PELIC Arabic male in level 3 writing class. We can give a CEFR level to the clause ‘people should not watch TV‘ in many ways. It is A2 because:  ‘should not‘ is a negative form of a …

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OUGHT (negative OR questions)

There are three negative points in the English Grammar Profile at C2 Modality that are quite rare. Point 215 is defined as: negative form ‘ought not to’ Point 226: CONTRACTED NEGATIVE ‘oughtn’t’ (without ‘to’) + verb Point 235 ‘ought’ + subject + ‘not to’ + verb to form (rhetorical) questions, often in formal contexts. *Point …

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have got to | have to | don’t have to

Here are two student examples of using semi-modal ‘have to’ to express whether something is required or necessary. Another thing is you have to make sure that you have included signal words to help the reader. PELIC Arabic female level 3 writing class.   I mean if someone wears something, you don’t have to wear that because she or he wears it. TLC male Spain B1 speaking test. *Note, the reduced clause ‘you don’t have to‘ is the 9th most …

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May I?

There are four entries in the English Grammar Profile that capture “May I…?”  Point 97 are polite questions.  They probably are not really asking for permission.  119 is literally asking for permission.  Yet, for the purposes of designating a complexity level, this matters little.  The interpretation of this structure becomes more difficult once we jump …

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