obligation

IT NEEDS REPLACING. (‘need’ + gerund)

Although gerunds are covered in a few different ways across a few CEFR levels in the English Grammar Profile, there is no entry given to the use of a gerund after ‘need’ as MODALITY which is listed by PEARSON: GSE 63 B2 ‘need’ with verbs in the gerund to express necessity. ‘need’ + Verb Phrase …

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going | have | need | want + TO BE + past participle

The English Grammar Profile B1 point 4 in the category of passives is defined as: an infinitive after a limited number of forms including ‘going to’, ‘have to’, ‘need to’, ‘want to’. *Note that Pearson lists this as: GSE 59 B2 ‘need’ with the passive infinitive to express necessity.  The report needs to be completed this week. Homework needs to …

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OUGHT (negative OR questions)

There are three negative points in the English Grammar Profile at C2 Modality that are quite rare. Point 215 is defined as: negative form ‘ought not to’ Point 226: CONTRACTED NEGATIVE ‘oughtn’t’ (without ‘to’) + verb Point 235 ‘ought’ + subject + ‘not to’ + verb to form (rhetorical) questions, often in formal contexts. *Point …

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‘BE’ + to infinitive | ‘BE’ + due to infinitive

In the English Grammar Profile (EGP), there are three similar points in the category of Future expressions with ‘BE’ at B2 in the English Grammar Profile. 47  ‘be due to’ and, more formally, ‘be to’ talk about things that are scheduled or expected. 53 OBLIGATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS WITH ‘BE TO’ 56 present form of ‘be’ …

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‘She should be looking for a job’ (SHOULD BE + verb ING)

Let’s look at an example in student writing: In Korea, it is so common that women should be looking for a job after divorce. PELIC Korean female level 4 writing. ‘Should’ can express obligation or expectation.  ‘Should’ can be used with a continuous form: Should be + lookING In the English Grammar Profile at B2, there are 3 points covering ‘should + continuous form’.  Points 141 (general), 164 and …

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