complements

Sometimes we need a word, phrase, or clause to make the meaning of something ‘complete.’

WHAT IS IT YOU WANT? (relative clause question)

Let’s analyse questions that have relative clauses to give emphasis.  So usually, we would say something like: What do we want to ask?  What are we trying to find out here? You can see the normal auxiliary verbs ‘be’ and ‘do’ get removed and relative clauses are added in the EXPERT EXAMPLES: What is it that we want …

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Having been + PAST PARTICIPLE

Point 38 in the category of PASSIVES: non-finite ‘-ing’ perfect forms of the passive as the complement of prepositions. Point 40 in the category of PASSIVES is defined: passive non-finite ‘-ing’ perfect forms in subordinate clauses to give explanatory background information. EXAMPLE: I feel like the luckiest person in the world, having been born at the intersection of great needs and great injustices and great opportunities to change them. TED An iWeb search for: . having been _VVN …

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I don’t + think | believe + CLAUSE

Point 14 in the category of NEGATION: negative forms of mental process verbs (‘I don’t think’, ‘I don’t believe’) followed by a complement clause, where the negative form is in the mental process verb rather than the complement clause An iWeb search for: _P _VD _X think|believe that_C 1 I DO N’T THINK THAT 20060 …

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nothing | anyone | everywhere

Point 58 in the category of PRONOUNS is defined as: wide range of indefinite pronouns as objects or complements. A search in iWeb for: _VV nothing|anyone|everywhere 1 KNOW NOTHING 29235 2 THINK ANYONE 22892 3 SAY NOTHING 17229 4 KNOW ANYONE 16116 5 TELL ANYONE 15737 6 KNEW NOTHING 14617 7 LET ANYONE 14570 TLC …

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each other

Point 60 in the category of PRONOUNS/reciprocal is defined as: ‘each other’ as the object of a verb or complement of a preposition to talk about the mutual behaviour of two or more people. An iWeb search for: * * * each other 1 ON TOP OF EACH OTHER 13130 (note that many of these …

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‘You make me happy’ (make + OBJECT + ADJECTIVE)

There are many ways to say ‘you make me happy.‘ The meaning is the same as: ‘I am happy because of you.’ ‘You cause me to be happy.’ ‘You are the reason I am happy.’ The grammar of ‘you make me happy’ “you make me‘ = subject verb object The adjective: ‘happy‘ complements the object. …

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EACH + THE OTHER

Point 105 in the category of PRONOUNS/reciprocal is defined as: ‘each’ (+ noun or pronoun) as subject followed by ‘the other(s)’ a complement of a preposition, to refer to two related things. (pronouns: quantity) A search in TED corpus for: Each {n} * {in} the [other|others]   Each attempt was substantially different from the other.       1  Each side …

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PHRASAL-PREPOSITIONAL VERB (STRANDED PREPOSITION)

Point 60 in VERBS is defined as: verb + particle + preposition, where the preposition is separated from its complement. Prepositions An iWeb search for: _VV _RP _I . 1 COME UP WITH. 10825 1 previously.tv   They prepared dishes that even 5-year-olds couldn’t come up with . 2 welltrainedmind.com My boys love picking out …

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STRANDED PREPOSITION

This post is about two points in the English Grammar Profile found in two different categories and two different CEFR levels.  Differentiating them depends on what prepositional verbs are.  A combination of the verb and preposition has an idiomatic expression with a distinct meaning.  However, the English Vocabulary Profile gives a better idea of the …

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indefinite pronoun (object or compliment)

Point 33 in PRONOUNS is defined as: an increasing range of indefinite pronouns as objects or complements of prepositions. In the EGP examples we have: An iWeb search for _V someone|everyone|somebody|everybody 1 FIND SOMEONE 45253 2 KNOW SOMEONE 30854 3 SEE SOMEONE 25775 4 NEED SOMEONE 22836 5 GET SOMEONE 19451 6 THINK EVERYONE 16489 …

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one another

Point 84 in the category of PRONOUNS / reciprocal is defined as: ‘ONE ANOTHER’ as the object of a verb or complement of a preposition to talk about the mutual behaviour of two or more people, often in formal contexts. A search for * * * * one another in iWeb: 1 TO GET TO …

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preposition + relative pronoun

Point 12 in the category of PREPOSITIONs is defined as: preposition + relative pronoun as complement, to avoid preposition stranding, often in formal contexts. The EGP examples include:   vacancy_NN1 in_II which_DDQ I_PPIS1 am_VBM very_RG interested_JJ ._. club_NN1 of_IO which_DDQ you_PPY are_VBR  the_AT secretary_NN1 ._. someone_PN1 to_II whom_PNQO  they_PPHS2 can_VM talk_VVI ._.   A search …

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‘BE’ + to infinitive | ‘BE’ + due to infinitive

In the English Grammar Profile (EGP), there are three similar points in the category of Future expressions with ‘BE’ at B2 in the English Grammar Profile. 47  ‘be due to’ and, more formally, ‘be to’ talk about things that are scheduled or expected. 53 OBLIGATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS WITH ‘BE TO’ 56 present form of ‘be’ …

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