complements

  • Sometimes we need a word, phrase, or clause to make the meaning of something ‘complete.’
  • ‘Complements’ are not always obligatory.
  • Complements have a stronger bond to the head of a phrase than modifiers.
  • Complements are often labelled objects or predicative.

YOURS (object)

Here’s an example of the possessive pronoun ‘yours’ in object position. It’s just like yours. Listen to the pronunciation. A2 point 21 in the category of PRONOUNS: the possessive pronoun ‘yours’, with singular reference, in object positions, and complement positions after ‘be’ and after prepositions A search in iWeb corpus for: * * * yours .   …

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there is | there are

Although ‘There is’ and ‘There are’ is an A1 elementary piece of grammar, the noun phrases as complements are quite difficult for English learners. The following sentences are corrected sentences from Thai students: There are many religions in Thailand. There are many different cultures and traditions. There are many fresh plants and beautiful flowers. See uncorrected versions here. Point 1 in the category of  VERBS: there is/are + singular noun …

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gerund (passive complement)

Here’s a STUDENT EXAMPLE: Therefore, people should educate themselves on their human rights and the basic human rights that other nations have in order to avoid being deceived. PELIC Arabic female level 4 writing class. GSE 64 B2 NP + VP +VP gerund (passive)   An iWeb search for: * _VV being _VVN * 1 TO AVOID BEING HIT BY 313 2 TO AVOID BEING HIT . 185 3 N’T LIKE BEING TOLD WHAT 182 …

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WHAT IS IT YOU WANT? (relative clause question)

Let’s analyse questions that have relative clauses to give emphasis.  So usually, we would say something like: What do we want to ask?  What are we trying to find out here? You can see the normal auxiliary verbs ‘be’ and ‘do’ get removed and relative clauses are added in the EXPERT EXAMPLES: What is it that we want …

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Having been + PAST PARTICIPLE

Here’s an example of the preposition ‘after’ complemented by a non-finite perfect form of the passive ‘having been p.p.’ Roughly a month and a half after having been laid, the surviving eggs hatch. Listen In the English Grammar Profile, there are two similar C2 points in the category of passives: Point 38: non-finite ‘-ing’ perfect forms of the passive as the complement of prepositions. Point …

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noun phrase + relative clause

Here are two student examples of complex noun phrases using relative clauses as complements: In addition, the people who lived in Korea 100 years ago didn’t have enough transportation. PELIC Arabic male level 5 writing class   Here are some of the things which I got. TLC speaking test female Kannada B2 A2 point 34 in CLAUSES is defined: a defining relative clause with ‘who‘ as the subject A2 point 20 in …

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I don’t + think | believe + CLAUSE

Point 14 in the category of NEGATION: negative forms of mental process verbs (‘I don’t think’, ‘I don’t believe’) followed by a complement clause, where the negative form is in the mental process verb rather than the complement clause An iWeb search for: _P _VD _X think|believe that_C 1 I DO N’T THINK THAT 20060 …

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nothing | anyone | everywhere

Point 58 in the category of PRONOUNS is defined as: wide range of indefinite pronouns as objects or complements. A search in iWeb for: _VV nothing|anyone|everywhere 1 KNOW NOTHING 29235 2 THINK ANYONE 22892 3 SAY NOTHING 17229 4 KNOW ANYONE 16116 5 TELL ANYONE 15737 6 KNEW NOTHING 14617 7 LET ANYONE 14570 TLC …

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each other

Point 60 in the category of PRONOUNS/reciprocal is defined as: ‘each other’ as the object of a verb or complement of a preposition to talk about the mutual behaviour of two or more people. An iWeb search for: * * * each other 1 ON TOP OF EACH OTHER 13130 (note that many of these …

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EACH + THE OTHER

Point 105 in the category of PRONOUNS/reciprocal is defined as: ‘each’ (+ noun or pronoun) as subject followed by ‘the other(s)’ a complement of a preposition, to refer to two related things. (pronouns: quantity) A search in TED corpus for: Each {n} * {in} the [other|others]   Each attempt was substantially different from the other.       1  Each side …

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PHRASAL-PREPOSITIONAL VERB (STRANDED PREPOSITION)

Point 60 in VERBS is defined as: verb + particle + preposition, where the preposition is separated from its complement. Prepositions An iWeb search for: _VV _RP _I . 1 COME UP WITH. 10825 1 previously.tv   They prepared dishes that even 5-year-olds couldn’t come up with . 2 welltrainedmind.com My boys love picking out …

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STRANDED PREPOSITION

This post is about two points in the English Grammar Profile found in two different categories and two different CEFR levels.  Differentiating them depends on what prepositional verbs are.  A combination of the verb and preposition has an idiomatic expression with a distinct meaning.  However, the English Vocabulary Profile gives a better idea of the …

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ONE (pronoun)

A2 point 16 in the category of PRONOUNS/substitution: ‘the one’ and ‘the’ + pre-modifier + ‘one’ with a complement, to refer to something specific. Point 35 in PRONOUNS/substitution is defined as: substitute for singular countable nouns which have already been mentioned or are obvious from the context. *There are a few other points that cover …

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indefinite pronouns: SOMEBODY SOMEONE EVERYBODY EVERYONE

Here’s a student example of the indefinite pronoun ‘everyone’ in the subject position with a singular verb: Everyone knows Istanbul. PELIC Turkish male level 3 writing class. The indefinite pronouns: ‘SOMEBODY’, ‘SOMEONE’, ‘EVERYBODY’ and ‘EVERYONE’ are all listed at A2 in the English Vocabulary Profile.  As far as CEFR level allocation, it doesn’t make any difference …

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