• A subordinate clause is also called the dependent clause.  It depends on or is subordinate to the main clause in a sentence.
  • Subordinating conjunctions are often used at the start of a subordinate clause.
  • Subordination happens when two or more clauses are not joined by the conjunctions: and, but, or, yet.
  • The subordinate clause is not the main clause.

conjunctive adverbs

We have an A2 and B1 grammar post about linking adverbs and subordinating conjunctions. However, sometimes in grammar, there are many terms such as ‘conjunctive adverb’ etc. According to Wikipedia: A conjunctive adverb, adverbial conjunction, or subordinating adverb is an adverb that connects two clauses by converting the clause it introduces into an adverbial modifier […]

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Here’s an example of the preposition ‘after’ complemented by a non-finite perfect form of the passive ‘having been p.p.’ Roughly a month and a half after having been laid, the surviving eggs hatch. Listen In the English Grammar Profile, there are two similar C2 points in the category of passives: Point 38: non-finite ‘-ing’ perfect forms of the passive as the complement of prepositions. Point

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however | whoever | whatever + may + seem

Point 213 in MODALITY is defined as: ‘may’ in a subordinate clause expressing concession with ‘however’, ‘whatever’, ‘whoever’ + ‘it or this may be or seem Our examples: All you’ve got to go on is streams of electrical impulses, which are only indirectly related to things in the world, whatever they may be.     Compromises can be struck, however difficult it yet may be.     A search in iWeb for: however _JJ it|this may_V be|seem 1

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whatever | wherever | whenever | however

In the English Vocabulary Profile, ‘Whatever’ is listed as a pronoun at B1 meaning ‘anything’ or ‘everything’, one example they give is: Whatever I say I always seem to get it wrong. This EVP example could be rewritten as: I always seem to get whatever I say wrong.   As a pronoun or a determiner at B2 meaning ‘no difference’: Whatever you decide, I hope you enjoy a wonderful summer. It could be rewritten as I hope you enjoy a wonderful summer

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not + verbING (subordinate clause)

Here are examples of negative non-finite clauses giving more information: I remember thinking very highly of Private Bell not wanting to see his record tarnished by a formal charge. listen   Look into my eyes so you know what it‘s like to live a life not knowing what a normal life‘s like. listen C1 English Grammar Profile point 116 CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: non-finite clause, introduced by ‘not’ + ‘-ing’, to give more information *This is hard to find any examples of online because there are many informally ellipted

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if you should

C1 points: 114 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: subordinate conditional clauses with ‘if you should’, in polite, formal contexts *Most of the English Grammar Profile examples include: ‘if you should have any’ (questions|concerns|problems) + don’t hesitate…’ Therefore, this is offering help or giving advice.  ‘should’ here gives a slight feeling of  ‘it is unlikely’ or

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C1 point 112 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: Conditional subordinate clauses with ‘if’ + the past perfect simple and modal verb + ‘have’ + ‘-ed’ in the main clause, to talk about imagined situations in the past, often with regret. *Note the same definition with ‘would‘ is listed at B1!  Basically, this means that for



‘As if’ means ‘as would be the case if’. Here’s an example of the subordinators as if +  Verb-ing clause. She studied the bracelet as if trying to estimate its fair market value. Listen ‘trying to estimate…’ is a manner clause, it describes how she studied. We could ask the question, How did she study it?   C2 point 133 CLAUSES/comparatives is defined as: ‘as if’ +

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ALTHOUGH | THOUGH + non-finite clause

In the English Grammar Profile, C2 point 131 in CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: non-finite clauses after subordinating conjunctions ‘(although, though)’, to express contrast. … although married, my mother decided not to leave…  Although committed to her job she successfully maintains her social contacts… Jack, though disappointed, respects the result. The EGP examples above, use Past Participles, but the definition above does not mention them as being critical to this as a C2 structure. *The tagging might make mistakes

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(complex conjunctions) so long as | on condition that | in the event that

Here are examples of ‘so long as’ and ‘on condition that’ meaning ‘only if’: So long as they keep to themselves, it makes no difference to me. Listen   The house and grounds are left to the city of Gotham on condition that they never be demolished,  altered or otherwise interfered with. Listen Here’s an example of ‘in the event that’ meaning ‘should something happen’: I’m here to protect you in the event that someone tries to access your mind through your dreams. Listen The English Grammar Profile C2 Point 122 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as:

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NON-FINITE past participle CLAUSES

In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 7 in the category of FOCUS is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with an ‘-ed’ form, before a main clause, for focus, often in formal, academic or business contexts. Also see Pearson’s 76 GSE C1: add information using appended clauses with ‘being’ and/or passive participles. Given enough time, she‘ll do

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