subordinate

  • A subordinate clause is also called the dependent clause.  It depends on or is subordinate to the main clause in a sentence.
  • Subordinating conjunctions are often used at the start of a subordinate clause.
  • Subordination happens when two or more clauses are not joined by the conjunctions: and, but, or, yet.
  • The subordinate clause is not the main clause.

and | but | or | because

A1 points 1-7 in the English Grammar Profile are listed as: single word conjunctions (‘and, but, or’): to connect single nouns and adjectives. to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences. ‘and’ and ‘or’ before the final item in a list. ‘but’ to add unexpected contrast. ‘because’ as a subordinating conjunction to introduce a subordinate clause. An …

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Having been + PAST PARTICIPLE

Here’s an example of the preposition ‘after’ complemented by a non-finite perfect form of the passive ‘having been p.p.’ Roughly a month and a half after having been laid, the surviving eggs hatch. Listen In the English Grammar Profile, there are two similar C2 points in the category of passives: Point 38: non-finite ‘-ing’ perfect forms of the passive as the complement of prepositions. Point …

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TO infinitive (purpose)

Point 32 in the category of CLAUSES: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘to’, to introduce purpose PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: To learn English, just follow these steps. Arabic male level 3 writing class. An iWeb search for: . _TO * * * 1 . TO DO THIS , 35825 2 . TO LEARN MORE ABOUT 29344 3 . TO DO SO , 15803 …

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while if | although | though

Point 76 in CLAUSES/subordinated at B1 is defined as: a finite subordinate clause with conjunctions (‘even though, (al)though, while if’) to introduce contrast, before or after a main clause. *Note, only ‘while if‘ is not overlapping other B1 grammar points or clashing at other levels out of the above conjunctions. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: Only one disadvantage is that I can spend a lot …

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before | after + VERBing

B1 Point 61 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘before’ and ‘after’ + ‘-ing’, before or after a main clause, to refer to time. For example: After studying English, I go to my apartment. PELIC STUDENT: Arabic, Male, Level 3 A search in the iWeb corpus for: before|after _VVG 1 AFTER READING …

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however | whoever | whatever + may + seem

Point 213 in MODALITY is defined as: ‘may’ in a subordinate clause expressing concession with ‘however’, ‘whatever’, ‘whoever’ + ‘it or this may be or seem Our examples: All you’ve got to go on is streams of electrical impulses, which are only indirectly related to things in the world, whatever they may be.     Compromises can be struck, however difficult it yet may be.     A search in iWeb for: however _JJ it|this may_V be|seem 1 …

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whatever | wherever | whenever | however

In the English Vocabulary Profile, ‘Whatever’ is listed as a pronoun at B1 meaning ‘anything’ or ‘everything’, one example they give is: Whatever I say I always seem to get it wrong. This EVP example could be rewritten as: I always seem to get whatever I say wrong.   As a pronoun or a determiner at B2 meaning ‘no difference’: Whatever you decide, I hope you enjoy a wonderful summer. It could be rewritten as I hope you enjoy a wonderful summer …

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not + verbING (subordinate clause)

Here are examples of negative non-finite clauses giving more information: I remember thinking very highly of Private Bell not wanting to see his record tarnished by a formal charge. listen   Look into my eyes so you know what it‘s like to live a life not knowing what a normal life‘s like. listen C1 English Grammar Profile point 116 CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: non-finite clause, introduced by ‘not’ + ‘-ing’, to give more information *This is hard to find any examples of online because there are many informally ellipted …

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if you should

C1 points: 114 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: subordinate conditional clauses with ‘if you should’, in polite, formal contexts *Most of the English Grammar Profile examples include: ‘if you should have any’ (questions|concerns|problems) + don’t hesitate…’ Therefore, this is offering help or giving advice.  ‘should’ here gives a slight feeling of  ‘it is unlikely’ or …

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if + PAST PERFECT + MODAL VERBS

C1 point 112 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: Conditional subordinate clauses with ‘if’ + the past perfect simple and modal verb + ‘have’ + ‘-ed’ in the main clause, to talk about imagined situations in the past, often with regret. *Note the same definition with ‘would‘ is listed at B1!  Basically, this means that for …

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IN THAT (conjunction)

The complex conjunction ‘in that‘ means ‘for the reason that’. ‘in that’ introduces more specific information about the previous clause.  For example:   ESPN It’s quite a strange sport in that it is a team sport but also an individual sport. C2 point 26 in CONJUNCTIONS is defined as: ‘IN THAT’ as a subordinating conjunction, to give greater in-depth explanation, often in formal contexts. An iWeb search for in_C …

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as if + NON-FINITE CLAUSE

‘As if’ means ‘as would be the case if’. Here’s an example of the subordinators as if +  Verb-ing clause. She studied the bracelet as if trying to estimate its fair market value. Listen ‘trying to estimate…’ is a manner clause, it describes how she studied. We could ask the question, How did she study it?   C2 point 133 CLAUSES/comparatives is defined as: ‘as if’ + …

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ALTHOUGH | THOUGH + non-finite clause

C2 point 131 in CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: non-finite clauses after subordinating conjunctions ‘(although, though)’, to express contrast. … although married, my mother decided not to leave…  Although committed to her job she successfully maintains her social contacts… Jack, though disappointed, respects the result. The EGP examples above, use Past Participles, but the definition above does not mention them as being critical to this as a C2 structure. *The tagging might make mistakes between VVN and JJ = …

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WERE + noun phrase + TO infinitive

Were you to handle this problem on your own, there would be no doubt you’re the kind of man we want. Listen C2 point 126 CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: ‘Were’ + pronoun + ‘to’ infinitive to introduce a condition, in formal contexts. Point 127 CLAUSES/conditional is defined as ‘were’ with an inverted subject + ‘to’ infinitive, to introduce conditions in formal contexts. Sadly, a search for . were _P to …

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(complex conjunctions) so long as | on condition that | in the event that

Here are examples of ‘so long as’ and ‘on condition that’ meaning ‘only if’: So long as they keep to themselves, it makes no difference to me. Listen   The house and grounds are left to the city of Gotham on condition that they never be demolished,  altered or otherwise interfered with. Listen Here’s an example of ‘in the event that’ meaning ‘should something happen’: I’m here to protect you in the event that someone tries to access your mind through your dreams. Listen The English Grammar Profile C2 Point 122 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: …

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NON-FINITE past participle CLAUSES

In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 7 in the category of FOCUS is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with an ‘-ed’ form, before a main clause, for focus, often in formal, academic or business contexts. Also see Pearson’s 76 GSE C1: add information using appended clauses with ‘being’ and/or passive participles. Given enough time, she‘ll do …

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if | when | so | while + SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

Here’s a simple subordinating conjunction ‘if’ in a sentence: If you would like to see me again, then give me a call. listen The only point for A2 CONJUNCTIONS is point 8, which is defined as: a limited range of simple subordinating conjunctions ‘(if, when, so, while)’ to introduce a subordinate clause. WHILE The conjunction ‘while’ is also listed at B2 in the …

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After + having | being + PAST PARTICIPLE

Let’s explain some examples of the grammar structure: ‘after being pp‘ and ‘after having pp‘: After being told these stories, I started thinking.                         (psychic-experiences.com) I moved back to India after having spent six years in the US.  (indix.com) Firstly, ‘after’ is a preposition before a complement ‘verb-ing’ clause.  For example, …

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