• A gerund is a non-finite ‘verbING’ that does not refer to time/tense.
  • Gerunds can take the position of noun phrases.
  • Unlike nouns, but similar to verbs, gerunds can have direct objects.

can’t bear + to-infinitive

In the English Vocabulary Profile at B2, ‘bear’ is defined: accept someone or something unpleasant For example: I can’t bear to see him like this. listen *There are other uses of ‘bear’ that are more advanced.  However, the sense defined above has a distinct grammar pattern: (CAN | COULD) (often negative) + bear + (to-infinitive | Verb-ing | noun phrase) Verb-ing …

can’t bear + to-infinitive Read More »

IT NEEDS REPLACING. (‘need’ + gerund)

Although gerunds are covered in a few different ways across a few CEFR levels in the English Grammar Profile, there is no entry given to the use of a gerund after ‘need’ as MODALITY which is listed by PEARSON: GSE 63 B2 ‘need’ with verbs in the gerund to express necessity. ‘need’ + Verb Phrase …

IT NEEDS REPLACING. (‘need’ + gerund) Read More »

gerund (passive complement)

Here’s a STUDENT EXAMPLE: Therefore, people should educate themselves on their human rights and the basic human rights that other nations have in order to avoid being deceived. PELIC Arabic female level 4 writing class. GSE 64 B2 NP + VP +VP gerund (passive)   An iWeb search for: * _VV being _VVN * 1 TO AVOID BEING HIT BY 313 2 TO AVOID BEING HIT . 185 3 N’T LIKE BEING TOLD WHAT 182 …

gerund (passive complement) Read More »

‘Not sure if it is.’ (NOT + non-finite or ellipted clause)

Let’s look at the most common examples of non-finite or ellipted claused used after ‘not’. Usually, we would say: I am not sure if it is possible. But we can remove the subject and verb to make an ellipted clause: Not sure if it is possible. We can also say: This is a petrol car …

‘Not sure if it is.’ (NOT + non-finite or ellipted clause) Read More »

love | hate | prefer + VERBing | to INFINITVE

Point 19 VERBS/patterns is defined as: verbs expressing preference followed either by a ‘to’-infinitive or an ‘-ing’ form, with no change in meaning. *Much of this grammar overlaps A2 Modality, for example, “I would love to share with you.”   A search in iWeb for LOVE _VVG 1 LOVE SEEING 14175 2 LOVE USING 13703 3 LOVE WORKING …

love | hate | prefer + VERBing | to INFINITVE Read More »

Verb + VerbING

Point 29 in the category of verbs/patterns is B1 and defined as: limited range of verbs followed by an ‘-ing’ form. Point 56 in Verbs/patterns is B2 and defined as an increasing range of verbs followed by an ‘-ing’ form. A search for _VV _VVG in iWeb corpus: 1 KEEP GOING 656012 STARTED USING 54040 …

Verb + VerbING Read More »

verb + new subject + verbING

Point 52 in VERBS/patterns is defined as: introducing a new subject before the ‘-ing’ form (using noun or object pronoun) _VV _P _V*G *Notice that the ‘get/keep somebody doing somthing’  grammar structure is frequent here.  Also, not all pronouns/nouns are subjects of a new clause. Much of this is still B2 as ‘verbs of the …

verb + new subject + verbING Read More »

Gerunds (verbING)

Here’s a student example of using a verb-ing form as a noun subject: Studying for an exam won’t be hard for you if you follow these steps. PELIC: Chinese male level 3 writing class. Point 22 in NOUNS at A2 is defined as: ‘-ing’ forms of verbs as nouns, in object position, to refer to activities. Examples include: like_II swimming_VVG, and_CC going_VVG shopping_VVG, I_PPIS1 prefer_VV0 dancing_NN1, …

Gerunds (verbING) Read More »