• Verbs describe actions, states, or occurrences.
  • A verb forms the main part of the predicate of a sentence.
  • The most distinctive property of lexical verbs is their inflection.  For example “…ed” marks past tense.
  • The form of verbs can be described by:
    • mood = indicative (normal), imperative, subjunctive.
    • modality = modal auxiliary (can,  will etc.)
    • tense (present/past)
    • aspect (perfect/continuous),
    • voice (passive/active)
    • number (singular/plural)
    • person (first: I, second: you, third: he etc.)
  • A verb can be the ‘head’ verb in a verb phrase: “might have been seen.”  The particular head verb largely determines what else is allowed in the clause.  For example, “I see you”, I look at you”

-ized (suffix)

Suffixes are letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning or grammatical function. When words end in ‘ized‘ they are past simple verbs, past participle verbs or adjectives.  If we look at the clearly tagged words below: (jj): 22 adjectives (vvn): 17 past participles (vvd): 9 past simple Here are iWeb …

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lexical verb + noun

My parents are moving house and didn’t tell me. listen Here are the search results from iWeb corpus for: _VV _NN 1 TAKE ADVANTAGE 333879 2 TAKE PLACE 325996 3 TAKE CARE 306138 4 TOOK PLACE 216397 5 MAKES SENSE 214827 6 TAKES PLACE 199817 7 MAKE SENSE 197141 8 TAKING PLACE 140481 9 TAKE PART 130666 10 PAY ATTENTION 127171 11 …

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subject + adverb + lexical verb + clause

Most reporting or mental processing constructions that introduce object clauses are listed at A2 or B1 in the English Grammar Profile.  We believe that if adverbs are also included, this probably shows B2 ability.  To check this, we look in the TLC speaking tests and find that the most common example only starts being used at …

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TAKE * noun TO infinitive

A search in the NOW corpus for TAKE * _NN1 _TO _VVI 1 TOOK TO TWITTER TO SHARE 5632 UNLISTED  And fans were angry  and they took to Twitter  with the hashtag #WeWantLeia. TED 2 TAKE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO THANK 5134 B2 We want to take this opportunity to thank you for coming  and taking the time to pay your respects. listen 3 TOOK TO TWITTER TO EXPRESS 3331 4 TAKE EVERY EFFORT TO ENSURE 2530 5 TAKES A VILLAGE TO …

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The “-ise” suffix is a common spelling variant of the verb-forming suffix “-ize.” It is primarily used in British English, while in American English, the corresponding spelling is “-ize.” The suffix “-ise” (or “-ize”) is added to the end of a noun or adjective to create a verb form. For example, real ⇒ realise advert …

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not to be

Verb patterns with ‘not to be’ generally fall between A2 and B1.  If they are also negated, non-finite, passive or ellipted they should be at least B2.   A search in the NOW corpus for: not to be * * 1 NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH 10259 Not to be confused with the diary of Anne Hathaway  which we stole out of her purse at the Gotham Awards. listen 2 NOT …

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BE + past participle + BY phrase

A detailed analysis of the structure “BE + past participle + BY”, which is commonly used to form passive voice sentences in English. This structure consists of a form of the verb “to be”, a past participle, and the preposition “by”. The webpage also includes examples from the iWeb corpus, showcasing how this structure is used in various contexts. Some of the most common phrases include “BE USED BY”, “IS CAUSED BY”, and “IS DETERMINED BY”. The examples illustrate how this structure allows us to focus on the action and its impact, rather than on who or what performed the action.

verb + WITH

Here are advanced examples of verbs + ‘WITH phrases‘: You hope for the best,  then make do with what you get. listen A man threatens you with a gun,  you break his neck,  we can’t call the police,  but it‘s nothing to do with me. listen DO WITH 796814 To find out which lexical verbs are most often followed by a ‘with PHRASE‘, we do a search in the iWeb corpus for: _VV with 1 WORK WITH 976989 A1 verb …

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lexical verb + possessive determiner + noun + TO prepositional phrase

C2 example: Our country owes its creation to a man  they declared insane. listen C1 example: And he will do his damndest  to put your mind at rest. listen An iWeb search for: _VV _APPGE _NN to_II 1 MAKE YOUR WAY TO 9604 B2 Please make your way to the nearest exits. listen 2 MAKE THEIR WAY TO 6953 3 MADE THEIR WAY TO 6103 4 CHANGED ITS NAME TO 5283 B2 possessive determiner …

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CAUSE + noun phrase + TO infinitive

The verb ’cause’ can be followed by a noun phrase and a to-infinitive to express the idea that the noun phrase is the reason why the to-infinitive action happens. For example:

The storm caused the power to go out.
The accident caused him to lose his job.
Her illness caused her to miss work.