REPORTED SPEECH

Reported speech is a speaker’s words reported in subordinate clauses governed by a reporting verb, with the required changes of person and tense.

reporting verbs

In the English Grammar Profile, A2 point 18 in the category of VERBS/patterns is defined as: reporting verbs, especially mental process verbs, with a clause as the direct object, without ‘that’, especially in informal contexts. For example: I hope you are doing well.   *notably, in the English Grammar Profile examples, all the verbs but ‘said’ are in the present …

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say | show = reporting verbs

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 26 in the category of PRESENT/simple is defined: a limited range of reporting verbs, including ‘say’, ‘show’ EXPERT EXAMPLE: This map shows the presence of agriculture on planet Earth.   PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: Some people say that money is the root of all evil, but I disagree with it. Korean male, writing class. _P show|shows|say|says * * * We have removed lines that are not …

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WH- (reported question)

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 10 in the category of REPORTED SPEECH is defined as: ‘wh-‘questions using a reporting verb + ‘wh-‘word + clause, with a change of pronoun and tense shift where relevant Expert examples: I once asked a really bright student what he hoped to learn from me. TED When asked what the biggest challenge was in making the film, William Joyce says, not giving up. listen PELIC student example: Every time, someone asked me what my major was, they always …

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VERB + DIRECT OBJECT + to INFINITIVE

This post contains an example of overlapping B1 grammar points located inside two different categories in the English Grammar Profile (EGP). EGP B1 point 6 in the category of REPORTED SPEECH is defined as: REPORTED REQUESTS AND COMMANDS with ‘ask’ or ‘tell’ + direct object and ‘to-‘infinitive EGP B1 point 38 in the category of …

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understand | realise + that CLAUSE

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 Point 42 in the category of VERBS/patterns is defined as: an increasing range of verbs, typically reporting or mental process verbs, with a ‘that’-clause as the direct object PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I started to understand that there are many types of movies, and I started to distinguish between them. Arabic, Male, Level 4, Writing Class. *Note that this partly overlaps ’28 …

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It can | could + be + said | argued | concluded | considered

The pronoun ‘it’ can be used where the subject is unclear at C1, and verbs such as ‘conclude’ are only used by C1 learners.  For example: It was concluded that it never existed. However, this post is about reporting with modal verbs. C1 point 208 in MODALITY is defined as: ‘can’ in passive reporting clauses in a more formal impersonal …

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STRANDED PREPOSITION

This post is about two points in the English Grammar Profile found in two different categories and two different CEFR levels.  Differentiating them depends on what prepositional verbs are.  A combination of the verb and preposition has an idiomatic expression with a distinct meaning.  However, the English Vocabulary Profile gives a better idea of the …

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verb + THAT clause

In the English Grammar Profile, A2 point 24 in the category of VERBS/patterns is defined as: limited range of verbs, typically reporting, with a ‘that’-clause as the direct object Here are examples that are not really ‘reporting’: l just want you all to know that I care about each and every person at this table. listen Studies have shown that there are many benefits of music education. pianogen.com.au     An iWeb search for _VV that_CST * …

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He told me not to do it (negative request)

The English Grammar Profile B2 point 14 in REPORTED SPEECH is defined as: ‘ask’ or ‘tell’ + direct object + ‘not’ + ‘to-‘infinitive. This point can be extended with Pearson’s GSE 60 B2 report orders, requests and advice with infinitive clauses. She told me not to do it. He warned us not to be late. *Pearson also includes an affirmative example: ‘She encouraged him to …

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