• An ‘indirect’ object is usually a noun phrase between the main verb and the direct object.  For example, “I told her I am tired.
  • ‘Indirect’ questions are used to be polite and they start with phrases such as:  could you tell me what it means?’  ‘do you know if this is good?’



B1 Point 6 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: past simple passive with a limited range of verbs needing two objects, putting the indirect object in subject position. *There is more information about this grammar at B2 TLC SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: I was given a big horse. female Russia B1 PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: When my husband was given a blow to the head in Oakland last year, I got frightened.

was | were + PAST PARTICIPLE + NOUN PHRASE Read More »

which one

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 44 in the category of PRONOUNS/substitution is defined as: ‘one’ after ‘which’ in indirect questions to refer to one of two or more options. For example: If I were to show you these two urban scenes, and I were to ask you which one is more beautiful, which one would you say? TED *not all the examples are ‘indirect questions’ in the EGP examples. A search in iWeb for: which one

which one Read More »

IF clause + imperative ( hedging )

Hedging is a technique used in English to express politeness and indirectness. It involves using certain words or phrases to soften the impact of what we’re saying or writing, making it less direct or categorical. The ‘if-’ clause (‘if you want’, ‘like’, ‘prefer’) is a common form of hedging used to soften the directness of

IF clause + imperative ( hedging ) Read More »

IF meaning WHETHER

The words “if” and “whether” are both used to introduce indirect questions or to express doubt or uncertainty. However, there are some differences in their usage: Conditional vs. Choice: “If” is primarily used to introduce conditional clauses or to express a condition that must be met for something else to happen. It implies a cause-and-effect

IF meaning WHETHER Read More »

will be + VERBing (future continuous)

The future continuous tense, used in sentences like “Sarah will be joining us for dinner,” indicates a planned or confirmed action that will occur over a period in the future. It expresses certainty about the future and is often used when the action is expected to happen as a matter of course. While usually not used with stative verbs, exceptions exist, especially in informal contexts. For instance, “I guess I’ll be needing a receipt off you there, Red” is a polite, indirect request.

will be + VERBing (future continuous) Read More »