certainty

adverb RESPONSE TOKENS

When you ‘listen’ to someone speaking in a conversation, you can respond with short phrases that add to the conversation. These utterances carry information and sometimes a single word like an adverb is all you might say. C2 point 224 in the category of MODALITY/adverbs is defined: adverbs expressing certainty as short responses Here is …

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maybe | perhaps

A2 Point 13 in the category of MODALITY/adverbs: certainty and possibility (‘maybe’, ‘perhaps’), before a clause or ellipted clause. *Note that ‘maybe’ is also listed at A1. And ‘perhaps’ is A2 in the EVP regardless of position. An iWeb search for: . maybe|perhaps * * * 1 . MAYBE IT ‘S BECAUSE 2541 2 . …

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BE + ADVERB + going to + VERB

C1 point 58 in future with be going to is defined as: increasing range of adverbs (particularly adverbs of certainty) in the normal mid position. This point overlaps adverbs of certainty at C1. A search in iWeb for the adverbs we find in the EGP examples: _VB (probably|undoubtedly|surely) going to_T _VVI Note ‘surely’ is rare. …

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absolutely | undoubtedly | undeniably

The adverb ‘undeniably‘ is used to emphasize that something cannot be denied or disputed.  It is listed at C2 in the English Vocabulary Profile with the meaning: in a way that is almost certainly true.  For example: That‘s undeniably true. Listen In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 64 in ADVERBS/modifiers is defined as: a wide range of …

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BE + bound | likely | meant | obliged + TO

*There is an interactive word tree exercise for this B2 grammar here. B2 English Grammar Profile point 152 in MODALITY overlaps many other modality points.  So here we will cover those not already covered elsewhere. It is defined as: the full range of expressions with ‘be’ + infinitive (‘be likely to’, ‘be due to’, ‘be …

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