maybe | perhaps

“Maybe” and the more formal “perhaps” are both adverbs that convey modality related to uncertainty or possibility.  For example: So why did we keep trying when all the adults said it was impossible? Well, maybe it‘s because we‘re kids. We don’t know any better. TED In this context, “maybe” is used to suggest a possible explanation or reason for why the kids kept trying despite the adults saying it was impossible. The speaker is speculating that

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absolutely | undoubtedly | undeniably

The adverb ‘undeniably‘ is used to emphasize that something cannot be denied or disputed.  It is listed at C2 in the English Vocabulary Profile with the meaning: in a way that is almost certainly true.  For example: That‘s undeniably true. Listen In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 64 in ADVERBS/modifiers is defined as: a wide range of

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wide range of stance adverbs

Adverbs of stance are a special category of adverbs that express the speaker’s attitude or viewpoint towards the content of a message. They are often used to indicate a statement’s degree of certainty, doubt, or objectivity. Some examples of adverbs of stance include arguably, assuredly, doubtlessly, probably, possibly, apparently, typically, and roughly. Stance adverbs can

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will be + VERBing (future continuous)

The future continuous tense, used in sentences like “Sarah will be joining us for dinner,” indicates a planned or confirmed action that will occur over a period in the future. It expresses certainty about the future and is often used when the action is expected to happen as a matter of course. While usually not used with stative verbs, exceptions exist, especially in informal contexts. For instance, “I guess I’ll be needing a receipt off you there, Red” is a polite, indirect request.

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BE + sure | certain + to INFINITIVE

In this post, we explore modality with two adjectives followed by infinitives. Here is an imperative example of telling someone with emphasis not to forget or fail to do something: Be sure to check the weather  before you go to the airport. listen And here is an extremely advanced modification of an assertion, a bit like a negative superlative comparison:   There’s nothing more certain to ruin a beautiful relationship than marriage.

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