Category: C2

ought negative

There are three negative points in Modality that are quite rare. Point 215 is defined as: negative form ‘ought not to’ Point 226: CONTRACTED NEGATIVE ‘oughtn’t’ (without ‘to’) + verb Point 235 ‘ought’ + subject + ‘not to’ + verb to form (rhetorical) questions, often in formal contexts. *Point 35 in the category of QUESTIONS […]

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BE (due) to

There are three similar points in the category of Future expressions with ‘BE’ at B2 in the English Grammar Profile. 47  ‘be due to’ and, more formally, ‘be to’ talk about things that are scheduled or expected. 53 OBLIGATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS WITH ‘BE TO’ 56 present form of ‘be’ + ‘due to’. There is also […]

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didn’t dare

In the EGP, Point 223 in the category of modality is used to talk about not being brave enough to do something.  It seems an unusual piece of grammar in that it is an infinitive next to another infinitive without “to”.  It also is surrounded usually by verbs of speech. Collocates 5 to the left […]

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how can (reflections)

Roughly 10% of language points in the English Grammar Profile depend heavily on manual interpretation to identify them. That is when the form has many other more frequent uses, and when the use is highly specific. Let’s investigate point 233 in the category of MODALITY. ‘how can’ to reflect, through rhetorical questions. And how can […]

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