There are three negative points in Modality that are quite rare. Point 215 is defined as: negative form ‘ought not to’ Point 226: CONTRACTED NEGATIVE ‘oughtn’t’ (without ‘to’) + verb Point 235 ‘ought’ + subject + ‘not to’ + verb to form (rhetorical) questions, often in formal contexts. *Point 35 in the category of QUESTIONS […]
There are three similar points in the category of Future expressions with ‘BE’ at B2 in the English Grammar Profile. 47 ‘be due to’ and, more formally, ‘be to’ talk about things that are scheduled or expected. 53 OBLIGATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS WITH ‘BE TO’ 56 present form of ‘be’ + ‘due to’. There is also […]
Points 140, 142, 158, 176 and 214 in the category of MODALITY are used for PAST POSSIBILITY, SPECULATION, REGRET, CRITICISM. On the Left, iWeb corpus gives us the following past participles: 1 COULD HAVE BEEN 178902 On the right further collocations, 4 to the left and right are from COCA corpus: 1 WORSE (JJR ) […]
In the EGP, Point 223 in the category of modality is used to talk about not being brave enough to do something. It seems an unusual piece of grammar in that it is an infinitive next to another infinitive without “to”. It also is surrounded usually by verbs of speech. Collocates 5 to the left […]
These are the 12 adverbs I would teach with “must” to advanced students: correctly, either, generally, somehow, therefore, constantly, currently, necessarily, simply, successfully, surely, satisfactorily, ultimately.
Roughly 10% of language points in the English Grammar Profile depend heavily on manual interpretation to identify them. That is when the form has many other more frequent uses, and when the use is highly specific. Let’s investigate point 233 in the category of MODALITY. ‘how can’ to reflect, through rhetorical questions. And how can […]
In the English Grammar Profile, Point 90 in the category of PAST continuous listed as C2, the adverbs ‘always’ or ‘constantly’ are used to talk about repeated events which are undesired or uncontrolled. Frustratingly, an example from point 70 in PAST category at B2 given by the EGP for adverb range pictured below clashes. Surely, […]
Point 91 in the PAST category of the English Grammar Profile, we can give reasons with this structure which collocates with: If it hadn’t been for + up to 9 spaces to the right in the COCA corpus (I changed to this corpus because iWeb and NOW corpora were not allowing or providing much information): […]