PASSIVES

‘Passive’ refers to the voice of verbs in which the subject undergoes the action of the verb as opposed to ‘active voice.’

gerund (passive complement)

Here’s a STUDENT EXAMPLE: Therefore, people should educate themselves on their human rights and the basic human rights that other nations have in order to avoid being deceived. PELIC Arabic female level 4 writing class. GSE 64 B2 NP + VP +VP gerund (passive)   An iWeb search for: * _VV being _VVN * 1 TO AVOID BEING HIT BY 313 2 TO AVOID BEING HIT . 185 3 N’T LIKE BEING TOLD WHAT 182 …

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WILL HAVE BEEN + PP (future perfect passive)

The future perfect passive is formed with the structure:  WILL HAVE BEEN + PASSIVE PARTICIPLE Here’s an EXPERT EXAMPLE of future perfect passive: If you live to 90, then 32 years will have been spent entirely asleep. TED The ending -t in (spent) is an irregular inflection for the passive participle, which regularly ends in -ed: PEARSON GSE 67 B2+ future perfect passive simple …

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passive + TO infinitve (belief or opinion)

Point 73 GSE B2+ is defined: express impersonal belief and opinion using ‘thought/considered/believed/etc.’ +’ to’ + VP infSTUDENT STUDENT EXAMPLES: Moreover, English is considered to be an international language. PELIC Thai male level 5 writing class.   In addition, he is believed to be the first teacher, because the first education system in ancient China was established by Confucius. PELIC Chinese male level 5 grammar class. EXPERT EXAMPLE: After all, the first intentional human burial is thought to have occurred around 100,000 years ago. …

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Having been + PAST PARTICIPLE

Here’s an example of the preposition ‘after’ complemented by a non-finite perfect form of the passive ‘having been p.p.’ Roughly a month and a half after having been laid, the surviving eggs hatch. Listen In the English Grammar Profile, there are two similar C2 points in the category of passives: Point 38: non-finite ‘-ing’ perfect forms of the passive as the complement of prepositions. Point …

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passive + BY + noun phrase

A2 point 2 in the category of PASSIVES : ‘BY’ to add information about something already known. B1 point 12 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: passive with ‘by’ to give focus. *note any use of ‘by’ is at least A2 in the EVP. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: All Chinese fields are owned by the Chinese government. Chinese female Level 3 …

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was | were + PAST PARTICIPLE + NOUN PHRASE

B1 Point 6 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: past simple passive with a limited range of verbs needing two objects, putting the indirect object in subject position. *There is more information about this grammar at B2 TLC SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: I was given a big horse. female Russia B1 PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: When my husband was given a blow to the head in Oakland last year, I got frightened. …

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BE + being + PAST PARTICIPLE

There are two B1 passive grammar points that overlap to some degree. B1 point 7 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: PRESENT CONTINUOUS, AFFIRMATIVE limited range of verbs B1 point 9 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: PRESENT CONTINUOUS, FUTURE REFERENCE There are no examples of this grammar in the TLC …

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present simple passive negative

B1 Point 10 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: PRESENT SIMPLE, NEGATIVE + range of pronoun and noun subjects *although ‘range of subjects’ is mentioned above, there is no entry for present simple negative elsewhere. There is no way to automatically check whether  these might actually be C1: ‘it’ with the passive voice …

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get + PAST PARTICIPLE

Point 5 in the category of passives is defined as: a range of forms of ‘get’ + past participles. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I would like to get rid of my bad habits. Korean, Female, Level 3, Writing Class. A search in iWeb for: GET _VVN 1 GET RID 313567 2 GET STARTED 233345 3 GET PAID 68050 4 GET CAUGHT 54284 …

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present simple passive affirmative (range)

A2 point 3 in the category of PASSIVES: present simple passive affirmative with a singular subject. B1 point 13 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: PRESENT SIMPLE, AFFIRMATIVE with a range of pronoun and noun subjects. A search on iWeb for: _NN is|are _VVN 1 PROGRAM IS DESIGNED 30264 2 COURSE IS DESIGNED …

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‘It should be noted that’ (passives to summarise)

C1 point 36 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: ‘it’ as a dummy subject, to summarise or evaluate in discussions, usually in formal or academic writing. *This might clash with B2. A search of the formal patterns found in the EGP for the iWeb: it_P _V _VB _VVN that 1 IT SHOULD BE …

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‘GET’ + OBJECT + PAST PARTICPLE

Point 35 in PASSIVES is defined as: ‘get’ + object + ‘-ed’ to talk about causing or instructing something to happen or to be done by somebody else, often informally A search in iWeb for: GET _N _VVN *not all the following match our grammar point. 1 GET PEOPLE EXCITED 734 (many of these are …

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GET + OBJECT + VERBing

Point 33 in PASSIVES is defined as: ‘GET’ + OBJECT + ‘-ING’ to talk about causing someone or something to do something. For example: And working with Craig got me thinking. Not all of the following in iWeb match our grammar: GET * _VVG 1 GOT ME THINKING 14965 2 GET IT WORKING 7858 3 …

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BEING + past participle ‘Being born in the …’

C1 point 32 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: NON-FINITE CLAUSES ‘-ing’ form as a subordinate clause or a noun clause to give explanatory background information. A search in the iWeb corpus for . Being _VVN * * gives us our being + past participle list   1 . BEING LOCATED IN THE …

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It can | could + be + said | argued | concluded | considered

The pronoun ‘it’ can be used where the subject is unclear at C1, and verbs such as ‘conclude’ are only used by C1 learners.  For example: It was concluded that it never existed. However, this post is about reporting with modal verbs. C1 point 208 in MODALITY is defined as: ‘can’ in passive reporting clauses in a more formal impersonal …

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‘It is said that …’ (IT + passive)

Let’s take a look at an IELTS writing task 2 example with this grammar: It is argued that volunteering should be made a part of the school curriculum. In the above example, ‘is argued‘ forms the passive part.  The active form of this is probably: ‘People argue that…” In our example, ‘people’ is not important or maybe we don’t know who …

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