non-finite

  • ‘non-finite’ verbs are not the main verb in independent clauses.
  • ‘non-finite’ verbs don’t have a tense.

MORE * * * THAN (complex comparisions)

A simple comparison in English is “She is more important than you.” One way to make comparisons more complex is to increase the number of words between ‘more’ and ‘than.’  This could include nouns or adjectives followed by non-finite clauses such as the following EXPERT EXAMPLE: Today, billions of citizens have more tools, more access to information, more capacity to influence than ever before. TED Pearson’s GSE 66 B2 structure is defined …

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Having been + PAST PARTICIPLE

Here’s an example of the preposition ‘after’ complemented by a non-finite perfect form of the passive ‘having been p.p.’ Roughly a month and a half after having been laid, the surviving eggs hatch. Listen In the English Grammar Profile, there are two similar C2 points in the category of passives: Point 38: non-finite ‘-ing’ perfect forms of the passive as the complement of prepositions. Point …

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TO infinitive (purpose)

Point 32 in the category of CLAUSES: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘to’, to introduce purpose PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: To learn English, just follow these steps. Arabic male level 3 writing class. An iWeb search for: . _TO * * * 1 . TO DO THIS , 35825 2 . TO LEARN MORE ABOUT 29344 3 . TO DO SO , 15803 …

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‘Not sure if it is.’ (NOT + non-finite or ellipted clause)

Let’s look at the most common examples of non-finite or ellipted claused used after ‘not’. Usually, we would say: I am not sure if it is possible. But we can remove the subject and verb to make an ellipted clause: Not sure if it is possible. We can also say: This is a petrol car …

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comparative adjective + THAN + verb-ING

The English Grammar Profile B1 Point 84 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: ‘than’ + a limited range of non-finite clauses (with -ing), forming the second part of a comparison after a comparative adjective This point partially overlaps PEARSON’S: GSE 62 B2 complex comparisons between verb/noun phrases VERB PHRASE 1/NOUN PHRASE 1 + …

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before | after + VERBing

B1 Point 61 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘before’ and ‘after’ + ‘-ing’, before or after a main clause, to refer to time. For example: After studying English, I go to my apartment. PELIC STUDENT: Arabic, Male, Level 3 A search in the iWeb corpus for: before|after _VVG 1 AFTER READING …

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not + verbING (subordinate clause)

Point 116 CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: non-finite clause, introduced by ‘not’ + ‘-ing’, to give more information *this is hard to find any examples of online! A search in iWeb for: . Not _VVG * * 1 . NOT TRYING TO BE 557 2 . NOT GOING TO HAPPEN 369 3 . NOT KNOWING WHAT …

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as if + NON-FINITE CLAUSE

‘As if’ means ‘as would be the case if’. Here’s an example of the subordinators as if +  Verb-ing clause. She studied the bracelet as if trying to estimate its fair market value. Listen ‘trying to estimate…’ is a manner clause, it describes how she studied. We could ask the question, How did she study it?   C2 point 133 CLAUSES/comparatives is defined as: ‘as if’ + …

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ALTHOUGH | THOUGH + non-finite clause

C2 point 131 in CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: non-finite clauses after subordinating conjunctions ‘(although, though)’, to express contrast. … although married, my mother decided not to leave…  Although committed to her job she successfully maintains her social contacts… Jack, though disappointed, respects the result. The EGP examples above, use Past Participles, but the definition above does not mention them as being critical to this as a C2 structure. *The tagging might make mistakes between VVN and JJ = …

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NON-FINITE past participle CLAUSES

In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 7 in the category of FOCUS is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with an ‘-ed’ form, before a main clause, for focus, often in formal, academic or business contexts. Also see Pearson’s 76 GSE C1: add information using appended clauses with ‘being’ and/or passive participles. Given enough time, she‘ll do …

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‘It is better to give than to receive.’ (comparative non-finite clause)

Here are some examples of a wide range of comparative non-finite clauses: The numbers are higher than expected. (using a past participle/adjective) To be kind is more important than to be right. (using TO infinitive) It may now be cheaper to buy than to rent. (using TO infinitive) B2 Point 103 in the category of CLAUSES & comparatives is defined …

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RATHER THAN + non-finite clause | phrase

Let’s look at how ‘rather than‘ is used to compare.  In the English Vocabulary Profile, at B1 the meaning is:  ‘instead of ‘ I‘d like coffee rather than tea. I usually wear a swimsuit rather than shorts. In the above examples: coffee, tea, a swimsuit, shorts are nouns or noun phrases, so ‘rather than‘ or ‘instead of‘ are complex prepositions. Here’s a student example …

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After + having | being + PAST PARTICIPLE

Let’s explain some examples of the grammar structure: ‘after being pp‘ and ‘after having pp‘: After being told these stories, I started thinking.                         (psychic-experiences.com) I moved back to India after having spent six years in the US.  (indix.com) Firstly, ‘after’ is a preposition before a complement ‘verb-ing’ clause.  For example, …

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