non-finite

  • ‘non-finite’ verbs are not the main verb in independent clauses.
  • ‘non-finite’ verbs don’t have a tense.

GO + verbING

Listed at A2 in the English Vocabulary Profile: go + verb-ing to go somewhere to do a particular activity For example: If you guys aren’t doing anything, we‘re all gonna go surfing. listen An iWeb search for: GO _VVG 1 GO SHOPPING 15263 ‘GO SHOPPING’ is listed at A1. Yeah, that‘s a good idea, because I was gonna go shopping for a wheelchair anyway. 2 WENT MISSING 12104 ‘GO MSSING’ is not an activity, …

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ing forms

On this website, ing forms are best located in our posts by searching for the tag: VVG A search in the iWeb corpus for _VVG gives the most common ing forms as follows: 1 USING 9077632 2 GOING 8570578 3 MAKING 4986719 4 LOOKING 4903064 5 WORKING 4440144 6 GETTING 4427697 7 TAKING 3186185 8 …

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MORE * THAN (complex comparisions)

A simple comparison in English is “She is more important than you.” One way to make comparisons more complex is to increase the number of words between ‘more’ and ‘than.’  This could include nouns or adjectives followed by non-finite clauses such as in the following EXPERT EXAMPLES: Today, billions of citizens have more tools, more access to information, more capacity to influence than ever before. TED It‘s harder to compose than to play. TLC native speaker the …

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Having been + PAST PARTICIPLE

Here’s an example of the preposition ‘after’ complemented by a non-finite perfect form of the passive ‘having been p.p.’ Roughly a month and a half after having been laid, the surviving eggs hatch. Listen In the English Grammar Profile, there are two similar C2 points in the category of passives: Point 38: non-finite ‘-ing’ perfect forms of the passive as the complement of prepositions. Point …

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TO infinitive (purpose)

English Grammar Profile A2 point 32 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘to’, to introduce purpose For example: I paid you a lot of money to do this job. listen *This grammar is very hard to locate in corpora if it isn’t at the front of the sentence.  It is also overlapped by other grammar points. For …

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‘Not sure if it is.’ (NOT + non-finite or ellipted clause)

Let’s look at the most common examples of non-finite or ellipted claused used after ‘not’. Usually, we would say: I am not sure if it is possible. But we can remove the subject and verb to make an ellipted clause: Not sure if it is possible. We can also say: This is a petrol car …

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comparative adjective + THAN + verb-ING

The English Grammar Profile B1 Point 84 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: ‘than’ + a limited range of non-finite clauses (with -ing), forming the second part of a comparison after a comparative adjective This point partially overlaps PEARSON’S: GSE 62 B2 complex comparisons between verb/noun phrases VERB PHRASE 1/NOUN PHRASE 1 + …

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before | after + VERBing

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 61 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘before’ and ‘after’ + ‘-ing’, before or after a main clause, to refer to time. Another way to say this is: ‘after + gerund’ or ‘before + gerund’ Also, note that this point will clash with …

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BEING + past participle ‘Being born in the …’

C1 point 32 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: NON-FINITE CLAUSES ‘-ing’ form as a subordinate clause or a noun clause to give explanatory background information. A search in the iWeb corpus for . Being _VVN * * gives us our being + past participle list   1 . BEING LOCATED IN THE …

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not + verbING (subordinate clause)

Here are examples of negative non-finite clauses giving more information: I remember thinking very highly of Private Bell not wanting to see his record tarnished by a formal charge. listen   Look into my eyes so you know what it‘s like to live a life not knowing what a normal life‘s like. listen C1 English Grammar Profile point 116 CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: non-finite clause, introduced by ‘not’ + ‘-ing’, to give more information *This is hard to find any examples of online because there are many informally ellipted …

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as if + NON-FINITE CLAUSE

‘As if’ means ‘as would be the case if’. Here’s an example of the subordinators as if +  Verb-ing clause. She studied the bracelet as if trying to estimate its fair market value. Listen ‘trying to estimate…’ is a manner clause, it describes how she studied. We could ask the question, How did she study it?   C2 point 133 CLAUSES/comparatives is defined as: ‘as if’ + …

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ALTHOUGH | THOUGH + non-finite clause

In the English Grammar Profile, C2 point 131 in CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: non-finite clauses after subordinating conjunctions ‘(although, though)’, to express contrast. … although married, my mother decided not to leave…  Although committed to her job she successfully maintains her social contacts… Jack, though disappointed, respects the result. The EGP examples above, use Past Participles, but the definition above does not mention them as being critical to this as a C2 structure. *The tagging might make mistakes …

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NON-FINITE past participle CLAUSES

In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 7 in the category of FOCUS is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with an ‘-ed’ form, before a main clause, for focus, often in formal, academic or business contexts. Also see Pearson’s 76 GSE C1: add information using appended clauses with ‘being’ and/or passive participles. Given enough time, she‘ll do …

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‘It is better to give than to receive.’ (comparative non-finite clause)

Here are some examples of a wide range of comparative non-finite clauses: The numbers are higher than expected. (using a past participle/adjective) To be kind is more important than to be right. (using TO infinitive) It may now be cheaper to buy than to rent. (using TO infinitive) B2 Point 103 in the category of CLAUSES & comparatives is defined …

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RATHER THAN + non-finite clause | phrase

Let’s look at how ‘rather than‘ is used to compare.  In the English Vocabulary Profile, at B1 the meaning is:  ‘instead of ‘ rather than examples: I‘d like coffee rather than tea. I usually wear a swimsuit rather than shorts. In the above examples: coffee, tea, a swimsuit, shorts are nouns or noun phrases, so ‘rather than‘ or ‘instead of‘ are complex prepositions. Here’s …

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After + having | being + PAST PARTICIPLE

Let’s explain some examples of the grammar structure: ‘after being pp‘ and ‘after having pp‘: After being told these stories, I started thinking.                         (psychic-experiences.com) I moved back to India after having spent six years in the US.  (indix.com) Firstly, ‘after’ is a preposition before a complement ‘verb-ing’ clause.  For example, …

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