• Conjunctions connect clauses or sentences or coordinate words in the same clause.

phrase ellipsis

Here’s a student example of verb phrase ellipsis: You need to study hard to pass the test unless you don’t want to. PELIC Arabic female level 4 grammar class Although there are a number of grammar points in the English Grammar Profile to do with Ellipsis, there are none that cover the ellipsis of phrases before or after the ‘TO’ infinitive.  Therefore, we turn to Pearson’s GSE …

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‘In order not to’ + INFINITIVE

PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I think we should do our best at the present moment in order not to be regretful. Chinese male level 5 writing class. We will only cover half of: GSE 60 B2 express negative purpose with ‘so as/in order not to’ In order not to seem stupid, he didn’t say anything. I came in very quietly, so as not to wake anyone. because ‘so as not to’ is at C1 in the English Vocabulary Profile.  ‘in order …

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‘BUT FOR’ (third conditional)

We know that ‘but for’ + a phrase means except for or if it were not for. At C1, this structure can be combined with a ‘would have clause’  so it is similar to a past conditional.  All together this construction means “if it wasn’t for this thing that happened, then this other thing was …

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The use of the conjunction ‘plus’ is covered at two different grammar points in the EGP. Point 14 in CONJUNCTIONS/coordinating is defined as: ‘PLUS’ WITH NOUNS often in relation to numbers. Point 12 is: ‘plus’ to connect clauses and sentences, often to point out a positive addition or advantage. *The word ‘plus’ is difficult to …

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comparative adjective + THAN + verb-ING

The English Grammar Profile B1 Point 84 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: ‘than’ + a limited range of non-finite clauses (with -ing), forming the second part of a comparison after a comparative adjective This point partially overlaps PEARSON’S: GSE 62 B2 complex comparisons between verb/noun phrases VERB PHRASE 1/NOUN PHRASE 1 + …

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Can I use a comma before although?

If you look at the iWeb corpus, you will see that there are almost a million examples in it of a comma before ‘although’ However, ‘but’ has a comma before it 25 times more. 1 , BUT 25,284702 2 , ALTHOUGH 911424

either * or

There are two almost identical points in the EGP for the following grammar. C1 Point 23 in CONJUNCTIONS/coordinating is defined as: EITHER OR to combine more complex strings of clauses and sentences. B1 point 9 conjunctions/coordinating: EITHER OR to connect two words, phrases or clauses. *there are also other overlapping points that relate to ‘combining …

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whatever | wherever | however (subordinating conjunction)

Point 22 in CONJUNCTIONS/subordinating is defined as: ‘whatever’, ‘wherever’, ‘however’, etc. as a subordinating conjunction, at the beginning of a sentence, to give focus. For example: However it happened, the underworld is overcrowded, and Zeus has ordered Hades to let some spirits out. A search in iWeb for . whatever|wherever|however _P * 1 . HOWEVER IT IS 8037 2 . WHATEVER YOU DO 5235 Whatever you do, don’t read anything about genetics that‘s published within your lifetime. 3 . …

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although | though + NON-FINITE

Point 131 in CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: non-finite clauses after subordinating conjunctions ‘(although, though)’, to express contrast. *The tagging might make mistakes between VVN and JJ = past participle and adjective for this point. An iWeb search for: though|although _VVN 1 ALTHOUGH BASED 907 2 THOUGH GIVEN 860 3 ALTHOUGH GIVEN 767 4 ALTHOUGH DESIGNED …

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so long as | on condition that | in the event that

The English Grammar Profile C2 Point 122 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: conditional subordinate clauses with a range of conjunctions (‘so long as’, ‘on condition that’, ‘in the event that’) with past, present or future reference. Pearson lists two of these as GSE 64 B2 a range of complex conjunctions in conditional statements (all three …

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Point 19 in A2 ADVERBS as modifiers is defined as: LINKING limited range of adverbs (‘also’, ‘so’, ‘however’) to show a relationship between two clauses or sentences. The EGP examples: I_PPIS1 also_RR bought_VVD ,_, so_CS I_PPIS1 decided_VVD However_RR ,_, the_AT clothes_NN2 were_VBDR cheap_JJ ._. Point in 2 A2 DISCOURSE MARKERS is: ‘so‘ to summarise, usually …


IF (meaning ‘whether’)

How can we formally find ‘if’ meaning ‘whether’?  Generally the following infitives will precede ‘if’: ((?:kn[eo]w|matter|seen?|saw|care|wonder|tell|told|remember|determine|mind)\w*) + if 1 I (PPIS1 ) DO (VD0) N’T (XX) KNOW (VVI) IF (CSW@_CS) 79855 2 I (PPIS1 ) DO (VD0) NT (XX) KNOW (VVI) IF (CSW@_CS) 35004 3 IT (PPH1 ) DOES (VDZ) N’T (XX) MATTER (VVI) IF …

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