CONJUNCTIONS

  • Conjunctions connect clauses or sentences or coordinate words in the same clause.

lexical verb + UNTIL|TILL

In the English Vocabulary Profile, wait until= NOT DO SOMETHING C1 to not do something until something else happens For example: Wait till you see what we‘ve done with the Internet. listen We want to know which other verbs carry a similar meaning of not doing something. He will be held until Vargas agrees to free the sympathizers he has jailed. listen The Persians will not stop until the only shelter we will find is rubble and chaos. listen I submit that we engage and delay until reinforcements arrive. listen You stay until the job‘s done. listen A search in iWeb corpus for: …

lexical verb + UNTIL|TILL Read More »

conjunctive adverbs

We have an A2 and B1 grammar post about linking adverbs and subordinating conjunctions. However, sometimes in grammar, there are many terms such as ‘conjunctive adverb’ etc. According to Wikipedia: A conjunctive adverb, adverbial conjunction, or subordinating adverb is an adverb that connects two clauses by converting the clause it introduces into an adverbial modifier …

conjunctive adverbs Read More »

phrase ellipsis

Here’s a student example of verb phrase ellipsis: You need to study hard to pass the test unless you don’t want to. PELIC Arabic female level 4 grammar class Although there are a number of grammar points in the English Grammar Profile to do with Ellipsis, there are none that cover the ellipsis of phrases before or after the ‘TO’ infinitive.  Therefore, we turn to Pearson’s GSE …

phrase ellipsis Read More »

‘In order not to’ + INFINITIVE

PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I think we should do our best at the present moment in order not to be regretful. Chinese male level 5 writing class. We will only cover half of: GSE 60 B2 express negative purpose with ‘so as/in order not to’ In order not to seem stupid, he didn’t say anything. I came in very quietly, so as not to wake anyone. because ‘so as not to’ is at C1 in the English Vocabulary Profile.  ‘in order …

‘In order not to’ + INFINITIVE Read More »

plus

The use of the conjunction ‘plus’ is covered by two different B1 grammar points in the English Grammar Profile. Point 14 in CONJUNCTIONS/coordinating is defined as: ‘PLUS’ WITH NOUNS often in relation to numbers. The home offers four bedrooms plus a study which could be a potential fifth bedroom. bendigoadvertiser.com.au   Point 12 is: ‘plus’ to connect clauses and sentences, often to point out a positive addition or …

plus Read More »

Can I use a comma before although?

If you look at the iWeb corpus, you will see that there are almost a million examples in it of a comma before ‘although’ However, ‘but’ has a comma before it 25 times more. 1 , BUT 25,284702 2 , ALTHOUGH 911424

by the time + CLAUSE

We have already covered by the time grammar on another page: C1 English Grammar Profile point 63 in the category of FUTURE is defined as: The present simple with ‘by the time‘ to refer to the future. For example: By the time it lands, they will already know if anything needs to be serviced. There is no other EGP tense that is related to this …

by the time + CLAUSE Read More »

either * or

As a conjunction, ‘either’ is used before the first of two or more alternatives, and then the other alternative is introduced by ‘or’. Here’s an example of using the ‘either or’ structure. And so, to be anti-racist, again, is to recognize that there are only two causes of racial inequity:  either there’s something wrong with people, or there’s something wrong with power and policy. listen There are two almost identical points in the English Grammar Profile for the following grammar. C1 …

either * or Read More »

whatever | wherever | whenever | however

In the English Vocabulary Profile, ‘Whatever’ is listed as a pronoun at B1 meaning ‘anything’ or ‘everything’, one example they give is: Whatever I say I always seem to get it wrong. This EVP example could be rewritten as: I always seem to get whatever I say wrong.   As a pronoun or a determiner at B2 meaning ‘no difference’: Whatever you decide, I hope you enjoy a wonderful summer. It could be rewritten as I hope you enjoy a wonderful summer …

whatever | wherever | whenever | however Read More »

not only do * but also

In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 19 in CONJUNCTIONS/coordinating is defined as: inverted auxiliary ‘do’ + the subject after ‘not only’, to give focus. For example: It‘s kind of like the dirty, little secret of poverty, which is that, not only do poor people take in very little income, but also, the income that they take in, they don’t spend it very wisely, and unfortunately, most of that spending is done by men. *This is an overlapping point at multiple levels.

IN THAT (conjunction)

The complex conjunction ‘in that‘ means ‘for the reason that’. ‘in that’ introduces more specific information about the previous clause.  For example:   ESPN It’s quite a strange sport in that it is a team sport but also an individual sport. C2 point 26 in CONJUNCTIONS is defined as: ‘IN THAT’ as a subordinating conjunction, to give greater in-depth explanation, often in formal contexts. An iWeb search for in_C …

IN THAT (conjunction) Read More »

ALTHOUGH | THOUGH + non-finite clause

In the English Grammar Profile, C2 point 131 in CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: non-finite clauses after subordinating conjunctions ‘(although, though)’, to express contrast. … although married, my mother decided not to leave…  Although committed to her job she successfully maintains her social contacts… Jack, though disappointed, respects the result. The EGP examples above, use Past Participles, but the definition above does not mention them as being critical to this as a C2 structure. *The tagging might make mistakes …

ALTHOUGH | THOUGH + non-finite clause Read More »

NEGATIVE CLAUSE + nor | neither

Here are two overlapping C2 grammar points in the English Grammar Profile. Point 129 in CLAUSES/coordinated is defined as: combine a negative clause with an inverted clause with ‘nor’, to give focus. Point 25 in CONJUNCTIONS/coordinating is defined as: ‘Neither’ or ‘Nor’ + inverted auxiliary or ‘be’ + subject to add to a previous related …

NEGATIVE CLAUSE + nor | neither Read More »