CONJUNCTIONS

  • Conjunctions connect clauses or sentences or coordinate words in the same clause.

and | but | or | because

A1 points 1-7 in the English Grammar Profile are listed as: single word conjunctions (‘and, but, or’): to connect single nouns and adjectives. to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences. ‘and’ and ‘or’ before the final item in a list. ‘but’ to add unexpected contrast. ‘because’ as a subordinating conjunction to introduce a subordinate clause. An …

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phrase ellipsis

Here’s a student example of verb phrase ellipsis: You need to study hard to pass the test unless you don’t want to. PELIC Arabic female level 4 grammar class Although there are a number of grammar points in the English Grammar Profile to do with Ellipsis, there are none that cover the ellipsis of phrases before or after the ‘TO’ infinitive.  Therefore, we turn to Pearson’s GSE …

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‘In order not to’ + INFINITIVE

PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I think we should do our best at the present moment in order not to be regretful. Chinese male level 5 writing class. We will only cover half of: GSE 60 B2 express negative purpose with ‘so as/in order not to’ In order not to seem stupid, he didn’t say anything. I came in very quietly, so as not to wake anyone. because ‘so as not to’ is at C1 in the English Vocabulary Profile.  ‘in order …

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‘BUT FOR’ (third conditional)

We know that ‘but for’ + a phrase means except for or if it were not for. At C1, this structure can be combined with a ‘would have clause’  so it is similar to a past conditional.  All together this construction means “if it wasn’t for this thing that happened, then this other thing was …

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plus

The use of the conjunction ‘plus’ is covered at two different grammar points in the EGP. Point 14 in CONJUNCTIONS/coordinating is defined as: ‘PLUS’ WITH NOUNS often in relation to numbers. Point 12 is: ‘plus’ to connect clauses and sentences, often to point out a positive addition or advantage. *The word ‘plus’ is difficult to …

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comparative adjective + THAN + verb-ING

The English Grammar Profile B1 Point 84 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: ‘than’ + a limited range of non-finite clauses (with -ing), forming the second part of a comparison after a comparative adjective This point partially overlaps PEARSON’S: GSE 62 B2 complex comparisons between verb/noun phrases VERB PHRASE 1/NOUN PHRASE 1 + …

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Can I use a comma before although?

If you look at the iWeb corpus, you will see that there are almost a million examples in it of a comma before ‘although’ However, ‘but’ has a comma before it 25 times more. 1 , BUT 25,284702 2 , ALTHOUGH 911424

either * or

As a conjunction, ‘either’ is used before the first of two or more alternatives, and then the other alternative is introduced by ‘or’. Here’s an example of using the ‘either or’ structure. And so, to be anti-racist, again, is to recognize that there are only two causes of racial inequity:  either there’s something wrong with people, or there’s something wrong with power and policy. listen There are two almost identical points in the English Grammar Profile for the following grammar. C1 …

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whatever | wherever | whenever | however

In the English Vocabulary Profile, ‘Whatever’ is listed as a pronoun at B1 meaning ‘anything’ or ‘everything’, one example they give is: Whatever I say I always seem to get it wrong. This EVP example could be rewritten as: I always seem to get whatever I say wrong.   As a pronoun or a determiner at B2 meaning ‘no difference’: Whatever you decide, I hope you enjoy a wonderful summer. It could be rewritten as I hope you enjoy a wonderful summer …

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IN THAT (conjunction)

The complex conjunction ‘in that‘ means ‘for the reason that’. ‘in that’ introduces more specific information about the previous clause.  For example:   ESPN It’s quite a strange sport in that it is a team sport but also an individual sport. C2 point 26 in CONJUNCTIONS is defined as: ‘IN THAT’ as a subordinating conjunction, to give greater in-depth explanation, often in formal contexts. An iWeb search for in_C …

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ALTHOUGH | THOUGH + non-finite clause

C2 point 131 in CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as: non-finite clauses after subordinating conjunctions ‘(although, though)’, to express contrast. … although married, my mother decided not to leave…  Although committed to her job she successfully maintains her social contacts… Jack, though disappointed, respects the result. The EGP examples above, use Past Participles, but the definition above does not mention them as being critical to this as a C2 structure. *The tagging might make mistakes between VVN and JJ = …

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NEGATIVE CLAUSE + nor | neither

Here are two overlapping C2 grammar points in the English Grammar Profile. Point 129 in CLAUSES/coordinated is defined as: combine a negative clause with an inverted clause with ‘nor’, to give focus. Point 25 in CONJUNCTIONS/coordinating is defined as: ‘Neither’ or ‘Nor’ + inverted auxiliary or ‘be’ + subject to add to a previous related …

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(complex conjunctions) so long as | on condition that | in the event that

Here are examples of ‘so long as’ and ‘on condition that’ meaning ‘only if’: So long as they keep to themselves, it makes no difference to me. Listen   The house and grounds are left to the city of Gotham on condition that they never be demolished,  altered or otherwise interfered with. Listen Here’s an example of ‘in the event that’ meaning ‘should something happen’: I’m here to protect you in the event that someone tries to access your mind through your dreams. Listen The English Grammar Profile C2 Point 122 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: …

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LINKING ADVERBS / SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Point 19 in A2 ADVERBS as modifiers is defined as: LINKING limited range of adverbs (‘also’, ‘so’, ‘however’) to show a relationship between two clauses or sentences. The EGP examples: I_PPIS1 also_RR bought_VVD ,_, so_CS I_PPIS1 decided_VVD However_RR ,_, the_AT clothes_NN2 were_VBDR cheap_JJ ._. Point in 2 A2 DISCOURSE MARKERS is: ‘so‘ to summarise, usually …

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IF (meaning ‘whether’)

How can we formally find ‘if’ meaning ‘whether’?  Generally the following infitives will precede ‘if’: ((?:kn[eo]w|matter|seen?|saw|care|wonder|tell|told|remember|determine|mind)\w*) + if 1 I (PPIS1 ) DO (VD0) N’T (XX) KNOW (VVI) IF (CSW@_CS) 79855 2 I (PPIS1 ) DO (VD0) NT (XX) KNOW (VVI) IF (CSW@_CS) 35004 3 IT (PPH1 ) DOES (VDZ) N’T (XX) MATTER (VVI) IF …

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