CLAUSES

  • A clause is traditionally defined as ‘SUBJECT + PREDICATE’.  The predicate is a verb or the part containing a verb and stating something about the subject.
  • Clauses are the next organisation of words after sentences.
  • A clause contains one or more phrases.
  • A clause can contain one or more other clauses inside it.
  • Clauses can be embedded in phrases.  For example, after the head noun followed by a ‘relative clause.’

phrasal verb + clause ‘work out how you did it’

At C2 in the English Vocabulary Profile: work out = to understand something or to find the answer to something by thinking about it A search in NOW corpus for which ‘question words’ follow phrasal verbs: work out _*Q 1 WORK OUT HOW 12286 Just give us five minutes, Mr Poirot, and I‘m sure we‘ll be able to work out how you did it. listen 2 WORK OUT WHAT 11671 …

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in order + to | for

In the English Vocabulary Profile: in order (for sb/sth) to do sth B1 with the purpose of achieving something The most common collocates of ‘in order to’ in COCA: For example: Or is the concept of an afterlife just a lie in order to avoid the terror of obliteration? listen   In order for this all to work, you need to completely let me in. listen

conjunctive adverbs

We have an A2 and B1 grammar post about linking adverbs and subordinating conjunctions. However, sometimes in grammar, there are many terms such as ‘conjunctive adverb’ etc. According to Wikipedia: A conjunctive adverb, adverbial conjunction, or subordinating adverb is an adverb that connects two clauses by converting the clause it introduces into an adverbial modifier …

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BE + adjective + THAT clause

Here is an example of BE + adjective + that clause: Well, when you pick a valentine you have to be sure that you choose the right person. listen Someone searched for ‘she is happy that’  so I thought I would do a iWeb corpus search for: _VB _JJ that * * There are various FOCUS, MODALITY AND HEDGING points for this grammar especially with the subject …

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there it remains

1 virology.ws   mavirus and CroV, the virophage integrates into the host cell genome. There it remains silent; the cells survive, and no virophage particles are produced. Such cells 2 millbanksystems.com   Measure, once a living becomes the property of the Board of Patronage there it remains for ever; and I submit to your Lordships that to allow a door to 3 fightaging.org   DNA plasmid …

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subject + verb

A1 point 2 in the category of CLAUSES is defined: simple affirmative declarative clauses For example: We‘re different. People see us as being different anyway. listen Also at A1 is: negative statements of the main verb ‘be’, with contracted and uncontracted forms. For example: I‘m not a doctor. listen *The English Grammar Profile examples contain the verb ‘BE’. An iWeb search for: _NN _VB …

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CAN | WILL (affirmative declarative clause)

A1 point 1 in the category of CLAUSES is defined: affirmative declarative clauses with modal verbs. The English Grammar Profile examples include: ‘can’ and ‘will’.  Future simple modality is also covered here. Here are STUDENT EXAMPLES: A lot of farmers can read and write, but they didn’t complete high school. PELIC Chinese female level 3 writing class.   I will go to New York on Thanksgiving day. Korean female level …

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IF clause + SHALL clause

Here’s an expert example of using a conditional clause + ‘shall’ clause to express modality: Come on, if we don’t share a similar social consciousness, how shall we discuss social problems? Listen to this sentence. C2 point 225 in the category of MODALITY is defined: ‘shall’ in the main clause after an ‘if-‘ clause conditionals Long open queries are impossible on iWeb, so here we first look for the …

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defining relative clause TO infinitive

Here’s an expert example of a defining relative clause using TO-infinitive: Several years earlier, she‘d become the first woman to ski to the South Pole. Listen to the sentence. The first woman to ski can be written in another way with the same meaning: the first woman who skied  Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined:  construct defining (restrictive) relative clauses with ‘to’ + infinitive verb …

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‘You know the person making them’ (reduced verbING clause)

Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined: “reduced” defining (restrictive) relative clauses with verb +-ing. This point will overlap: verb of senses + object + verbing This is difficult grammar to find in corpora since many other structures get caught.  We have done a search with a full stop to narrow out questions.  Our search string …

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phrase ellipsis

Here’s a student example of verb phrase ellipsis: You need to study hard to pass the test unless you don’t want to. PELIC Arabic female level 4 grammar class Although there are a number of grammar points in the English Grammar Profile to do with Ellipsis, there are none that cover the ellipsis of phrases before or after the ‘TO’ infinitive.  Therefore, we turn to Pearson’s GSE …

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‘It is for you to decide.’ (FOR +TO infinitive clause)

Pearson’s GSE 58 B1+ clause + ‘for’ to introduce an infinitive clause with a different subject.  The important thing is for you to arrive on time. My aim is for my children to go to university. A search in iWeb for: _VB for * _TO _VVI 1 IS FOR YOU TO DECIDE 392 (most examples with this string contained ‘whether’ or ‘whether or not’ which is C2.) 2 IS FOR YOU …

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‘In order not to’ + INFINITIVE

PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I think we should do our best at the present moment in order not to be regretful. Chinese male level 5 writing class. We will only cover half of: GSE 60 B2 express negative purpose with ‘so as/in order not to’ In order not to seem stupid, he didn’t say anything. I came in very quietly, so as not to wake anyone. because ‘so as not to’ is at C1 in the English Vocabulary Profile.  ‘in order …

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MORE * THAN (complex comparisions)

A simple comparison in English is “She is more important than you.” One way to make comparisons more complex is to increase the number of words between ‘more’ and ‘than.’  This could include nouns or adjectives followed by non-finite clauses such as in the following EXPERT EXAMPLES: Today, billions of citizens have more tools, more access to information, more capacity to influence than ever before. TED It‘s harder to compose than to play. TLC native speaker the …

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‘would rather’ | ‘it’s time’ + PAST TENSE CLAUSE

Here we look at examples of using ‘the past tense’ in a way that is not referring to past time.  In these EXPERT EXAMPLES: It’s time we started to think about the environment and a little bit less about money. Isle of Man Newspapers As an environmentalist, we would rather that didn’t happen. TED ‘the past tense’ expresses a wish that is distanced from the real situation. In reality, they are not thinking …

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if + necessary | any | anything | in doubt (subject and verb ellipsis)

Here are EXPERT EXAMPLES of subject and verb ellipsis after ‘if’: When you speak your character’s words, you can hear whether they sound natural, and fix them if necessary. TED *If necessary = if it is necessary. Unlike the billions of people who have few options, if any, due to war, poverty, or illness, you have plentiful opportunities to live decisively. TED *if any = if there are any.     Planet Radio If in doubt, don’t drive. *if in doubt = in you are in …

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WHAT IS IT YOU WANT? (relative clause question)

Let’s analyse questions that have relative clauses to give emphasis.  So usually, we would say something like: What do we want to ask?  What are we trying to find out here? You can see the normal auxiliary verbs ‘be’ and ‘do’ get removed and relative clauses are added in the EXPERT EXAMPLES: What is it that we want …

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ONLY IF + inverted conditional

On Pearson’s scale at GSE 71 B2+ describe present or future outcomes of a hypothetical situation using initial ‘only if’ with inversion of subject and object. ‘Only if’ + first/second conditional with inversion The complexity of this structure is highly unlikely to be B2 as Pearson has it listed.  The most similar EGP construction is …

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‘BUT FOR’ (third conditional)

We know that ‘but for’ + a phrase means except for or if it were not for.  At C1, this structure can be combined with a ‘would have clause’  so it is similar to a past conditional.  All together this construction means “if it wasn’t for this thing that happened, then this other thing was …

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