Defining relative clauses add essential information to a sentence.

defining relative clause TO infinitive

Here’s an expert example of a defining relative clause using TO-infinitive: Several years earlier, she‘d become the first woman to ski to the South Pole. Listen to the sentence. The first woman to ski can be written in another way with the same meaning: the first woman who skied  Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined:  construct defining (restrictive) relative clauses with ‘to’ + infinitive verb […]

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reduced adjective clause

B1+ Reduced Adjective Clauses
We reduce sentences when you have the same subject in the main clause and the adjective clause.
Adjective clauses contain relative pronouns like who, which, or that. The reduced adjective clause
becomes an adjective phrase, which does not have a subject. An adjective phrase does not have a
subject and a verb. Instead, it has a present participle (base verb + ing) for the active voice or a past
participle for the passive voice.
(Mt. SAC Writing Center)

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WHO | THAT subject pronouns in defining relative clauses

Defining relative clauses, also known as restrictive relative clauses, provide essential information about the noun they refer to. This information is crucial for defining or restricting the meaning of the noun.

When the noun refers to a person, ‘who’ is often used as the subject of a defining relative clause. For example, in the sentence “The woman who lives next door is a doctor,” ‘who’ is the subject of the clause and refers back to ‘the woman’. The clause “who lives next door” provides essential information about which woman is being referred to.

On the other hand, ‘that’ can also be used as a subject in defining relative clauses when referring to both people and things. For instance, in the sentence “He’s the man that saw me yesterday,” ‘that’ refers to ‘the man’, and the clause “that saw me yesterday” tells us which man is being referred to.

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WHICH relative subject pronoun

A comprehensive overview of how the relative pronoun “which” is used in English grammar.

The examples clearly illustrate the difference between defining and non-defining relative clauses. In defining relative clauses, “which” provides essential information about the noun, as in “The book which lies on the table is mine.” In non-defining relative clauses, “which” provides additional information that doesn’t change the basic meaning of the noun, as in “I visited Paris, which is known for its beautiful architecture.”

The examples from the iWeb search also demonstrate how “which” can be used to connect discourse and introduce a clause that explains a result, inference, or consequence of a situation or fact. For instance, “Our team has won every match this season, which brings us to the top of the league.”

The AI-generated sentences using the corpus data are also very helpful in understanding how “which” can be used in various contexts. For example, “We’ve developed a system which allows users to easily track their progress.”

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the reason why

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 63 in CLAUSES is defined as: THE REASON WHY: defining relative clauses with ‘why’ after ‘reason’, to give an explanation and for focus. *Note that “the reason that…” is B2.  A search in iWeb for: the * reason why 1 THE MAIN REASON WHY 8371 2 THE ONLY REASON WHY

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defining relative clause without a relative pronoun

A defining relative clause provides essential information about the noun it modifies. In English grammar, it’s possible to omit the relative pronoun (who, which, that, etc.) in such clauses when it is the object. This structure, termed as a defining relative clause without a relative pronoun, is often found in phrases like “the time it takes,” “the information you need,” and “the way you want.”

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