passive + BY + noun phrase

In the English Grammar Profile, A2 point 2 in the category of PASSIVES :

‘BY’ to add information about something already known.

B1 point 12 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as:

passive with ‘by’ to give focus.

All the A2 examples use the pronoun IT  + is|was + past participle  + by

The one B1 example uses a noun instead of it.

Any use of ‘by’ is at least A2 in the EVP.


A search in NOW corpus for:

_P _VB _VVN by

1 HE IS SURVIVED BY 17207
2 WHO WAS REPRESENTED BY 16819
3 SHE IS SURVIVED BY 10134
4 IT WAS FOLLOWED BY 8945

Asia Pacific was the largest region in the hydrogen marketaccounting for 40.2% of the total in 2020.
It was followed by Western Europe, North America and other regions.

smart-energy.com

5 HE WAS HIT BY 7179
6 WHO WAS KILLED BY 7113
7 HE WAS REPLACED BY 6417
8 HE WAS STRUCK BY 6062
9 I WAS STRUCK BY 5774
10 WHO WAS ACCOMPANIED BY 5668
11 HE WAS ARRESTED BY 5609
12 HE WAS ACCOMPANIED BY 5604
13 WHO ARE BOUND BY 5528
14 IT IS POWERED BY 5522
15 THEY WERE JOINED BY 5516
16 HE WAS JOINED BY 5265
17 HE WAS APPROACHED BY 5196
18 I WAS TOLD BY 4871
19 HE WAS TOLD BY 4856
20 WE ARE ENCOURAGED BY 4145
21 HE WAS ATTACKED BY 4128
22 HE WAS INSPIRED BY 3947
23 WHO ARE AFFECTED BY 3879
24 HE WAS KILLED BY 3832
25 WE ARE EXCITED BY 3672
26 IT WAS HIT BY 3591
27 SHE WAS RAPED BY 3478
28 IT WAS WRITTEN BY 3474
29 WHO WERE AFFECTED BY 3469
30 WHO WAS APPOINTED BY 3303
31 HE WAS ASKED BY 3300
32 IT WAS CREATED BY 3123
33 HE WAS SHOT BY 3032
34 SHE WAS STRUCK BY 2863
35 SHE WAS TOLD BY 2862
36 IT IS FOLLOWED BY 2829
37 SHE WAS HIT BY 2814
38 IT WAS CAUSED BY 2807
39 HE WAS SURROUNDED BY 2744
40 I WAS INSPIRED BY 2734
41 HE WAS IMPRESSED BY 2733
42 I WAS IMPRESSED BY 2728
43 WHO WAS ARRESTED BY 2643
44 IT IS OWNED BY 2623
45 SHE WAS JOINED BY 2612
46 HE WAS PREDECEASED BY 2594
47 HE WAS STOPPED BY 2524
48 HE WAS FOLLOWED BY 2523
49 IT WAS INSPIRED BY 2502
50 SHE WAS APPROACHED BY 2462

A2 verbs in the above:

followed, hit, joined, killed


A search in iWeb for:

_VB _VVN by * *

*note some of these might be -ed adjectives

1 IS SURVIVED BY HIS WIFE 6147
2 ARE REQUIRED BY LAW TO 4481
3 BE ACCOMPANIED BY AN ADULT 4096

B2

All children must be accompanied by an adult for the duration of the climb.

haveagonews.com.au

4 IS CONSIDERED BY MANY TO 3391

I realize that it is considered by many to be an onthewayout kind of itembut I believe that to be a rural myth.

The Magic of Belle Isle

5 BE COMPLETED BY THE END 3312
6 IS REQUIRED BY LAW TO 2436
7 IS AMENDED BY ADDING AT 2252
8 BE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS 2246
9 IS SURVIVED BY HER HUSBAND 2191
10 BE BOUND BY THESE TERMS 2085
11 BE BOUND BY THE TERMS 2079
12 BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED 2062
13 WAS HIT BY A CAR 1865

He was hit by a car.

listen

14 IS GIVEN BY : 1789
15 IS ACCREDITED BY THE COMMISSION 1786
16 IS CALCULATED BY DIVIDING THE 1699
17 WAS HIT BY A PITCH 1554
18 BE CAUSED BY A NUMBER 1470
19 IS DETERMINED BY THE NUMBER 1260
20 BE OBTAINED BY CONTACTING THE 1241
21 IS ENABLED BY DEFAULT. 1236
22 BE ACCOMPANIED BY A PARENT 1079
23 IS DISABLED BY DEFAULT. 1070
24 BE FOUND BY CLICKING HERE 1056
25 IS COMPLICATED BY THE FACT 1053
26 BE FOUND BY CLICKING ON 1039
27 BE EXPLAINED BY THE FACT 1038
28 BEING HIT BY A CAR 1032
29 WAS SUCCEEDED BY HIS SON 1031
30 IS ACCREDITED BY THE HIGHER 996
31 IS COMPOUNDED BY THE FACT 995
32 BEEN APPROVED BY THE FDA 993
33 IS ACCREDITED BY THE ACCREDITATION 988
34 IS REQUIRED BY LAW. 965
35 IS ACCREDITED BY THE NATIONAL 949
36 IS GOVERNED BY THE LAWS 947
37 IS ACCREDITED BY THE AMERICAN 931
38 WAS APPROVED BY THE FDA 911
39 BE CAUSED BY A VARIETY 909
40 IS SURVIVED BY HIS WIDOW 833
41 IS CERTIFIED BY THE AMERICAN 832
42 BE REPLACED BY A NEW 828
43 IS CALCULATED BY MULTIPLYING THE 828
44 BE ACCESSED BY CLICKING ON 801
45 IS CONSIDERED BY SOME TO 790
46 IS USED BY MORE THAN 784
47 BE REACHED BY PHONE AT 779
48 IS ACCREDITED BY THE SOUTHERN 777
49 IS SEEN BY MANY AS 763
50 WAS TAKEN BY AMBULANCE TO 748
51 IS GOVERNED BY A BOARD 743
52 WAS FUNDED BY THE NATIONAL 740
53 WAS DESTROYED BY FIRE IN 738
54 BE NOTIFIED BY EMAIL. 737
55 IS DETERMINED BY THE AMOUNT 728
56 IS ACCREDITED BY THE COUNCIL 725
57 IS CAUSED BY A VIRUS 697
58 WAS STRUCK BY A CAR 694
59 ARE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS 691
60 BE REDUCED BY THE AMOUNT 684
61 IS SELECTED BY DEFAULT. 672
62 BE SURPRISED BY HOW MUCH 670
63 IS AMENDED BY INSERTING AFTER 667
64 IS CALCULATED BY TAKING THE 653
65 IS REGARDED BY MANY AS 636
66 IS AMENDED BY STRIKING THE 632
67 BE APPROVED BY THE BOARD 629
68 BEEN HIT BY A CAR 621
69 IS AMENDED BY STRIKING OUT 621
70 ARE APPOINTED BY THE GOVERNOR 617
71 IS RANKED BY U.S. NEWS 609
72 IS SUPPORTED BY THE FACT 603
73 BE CAUSED BY : 597
74 BE REQUIRED BY LAW TO 596
75 BE APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT 590
76 IS PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT, 586
77 ARE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT, 581
78 BE PUNISHED BY A FINE 574
79 ARE OWNED BY THE SAME 566
80 BE REQUIRED BY LAW . 561
81 IS SURVIVED BY HIS PARENTS 560
82 IS CREATED BY EHEALTHME BASED 559
83 IS MEANT BY THE TERM 556
84 IS CONSIDERED BY MANY AS 555
85 BE OBTAINED BY CALLING THE 552
86 IS EVIDENCED BY THE FACT 549
87 IS FUNDED BY THE NATIONAL 548
88 IS SURVIVED BY HIS MOTHER 544
89 BE FOUND BY CLICKING THE 542
90 BE REACHED BY EMAIL AT 541
91 IS SURVIVED BY HIS LOVING 537
92 BE AMAZED BY THE RESULTS 534

It was hard to do anything but be amazed by the results.

fool.com

93 BE MADE BY CREDIT CARD 531
94 BE SURPRISED BY HOW MANY 528
95 BEEN COMPENSATED BY COLLECTIVE BIAS 527
96 IS DETERMINED BY THE SIZE 524
97 WAS SUPPORTED BY THE NATIONAL 523
98 BE DETERMINED BY THE BOARD 512
99 WAS STRUCK BY A VEHICLE 511
100 WAS ATTENDED BY MORE THAN 503


A2:
adding, ambulance, by, calling, clicking, completed, contacting, explained, fact, fire, higher, hit, meant, national, news, out, size, surprised, term, terms, variety

B1:
accompanied, amazed, amount, approved, attended, based, complicated, considered, created, destroyed, disabled, dividing, law, laws, owned, president, protected, punished, reached, reduced, replaced, required, results, selected, southern, striking, struck, succeeded, supported, vehicle, virus


PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE:

All Chinese fields are owned by the Chinese government.

Chinese female Level 3 Writing Class.

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