• ‘Deduction’ is guessing how true we think something is.
  • We deduce this truth from the available information.
  • We usual use modal verbs to express how certain we are about the possibility.
  • It is similar to drawing a conclusion.

can’t | cannot

Modality is the grammatical expression of the speaker’s attitude or opinion about the possibility, necessity, or certainty of an action or state. Can’t is a modal verb that shows the negation of the verb can. It means that the subject is unable to do something, such as perform an action or demonstrate an ability. It can also be used to express deduction, which is a logical inference based on evidence or reasoning. For example:

She can’t swim. (ability)
He can’t be at home. It’s too early. (deduction)

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MUST HAVE + past participle

In the English Grammar Profile, there are essentially the same two points in the category of Modality at B2 for the same form. Point 144 is defined as: DEDUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: perfect form of ‘must’ to make deductions about the past. and point 166: PAST AFFIRMATIVE must have’ + ‘-ed’. For example: He had come such a long way, and his dream must have seemed so close that he could

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