TLC

  • The Trinity Lancaster Corpus (TLC) is the largest corpus of spoken texts from learners of English as their second language.
  • The data used in the TLC was collected between 2012-2018 as part of the tests in Spoken English.
  • The corpus has over 4 million words.

WISH + past simple

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 21 in the category of PAST is defined as: past simple with ‘wish (that)’ to express regret that things are not different. TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: I listen to music a lot and sometimes I wish that my life was a musical. male Spain C2 EXPERT EXAMPLES:  I wish I never called. TED There were many moments growing up where I wished that I was white. TED *Note that past perfect is also possible with …

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had been + VERBing

Point 27 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous: an action or event which began before a point in the past and was still continuing up to that point, often with ‘for’ or ‘since’, to give background information. Point 32 in the PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous: background action …

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I remember | believe | understand | hear (that) + CLAUSE

In the English Grammar Profile at B1, point 28 in the category of PRESENT/simple is defined: an increasing range of mental process verbs, including ‘remember’, ‘understand’, ‘believe’ A similar addition to this point is Pearson’s GSE 62 B2 speak about information acquired from others using ‘hear’ + ‘(that +)’ complement clause. I hear that John and Susie are getting married. I’ve heard that Martin ‘s lost his job. …

I remember | believe | understand | hear (that) + CLAUSE Read More »

was | were + PAST PARTICIPLE + NOUN PHRASE

B1 Point 6 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: past simple passive with a limited range of verbs needing two objects, putting the indirect object in subject position. *There is more information about this grammar at B2 TLC SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: I was given a big horse. female Russia B1 PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: When my husband was given a blow to the head in Oakland last year, I got frightened. …

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BE + being + PAST PARTICIPLE

There are two B1 passive grammar points that overlap to some degree. B1 point 7 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: PRESENT CONTINUOUS, AFFIRMATIVE limited range of verbs B1 point 9 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: PRESENT CONTINUOUS, FUTURE REFERENCE There are no examples of this grammar in the TLC …

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noun + OF + MINE | YOURS

Here is another example of overlapping grammar points in the English Grammar Profile. B1 Point 37 in the category of NOUNS/phrases is defined as: NOUN + ‘OF’ + POSSESSIVE PRONOUN Which overlaps the more specific B1 point 47 in the category of PRONOUNS: possessive pronoun ‘yours’ after noun + ‘of’. It would be very beneficial …

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some | any | each | a few + of + PRONOUN

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 49 in the category of PRONOUNS/quantity  is defined as: increasing range of pronouns (‘some’, ‘a few’, ‘any’, ‘each’) with ‘of’ followed by an object pronoun. An iWeb search for: some|any|each of _P 1 SOME OF THEM 180790 TLC SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: There are many types of chocolates in this world, but unfortunately,  I‘m a fussy girl and I just like some of them. female, India, …

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VERB + myself | yourself | himself | itself | herself

B1 Point 55 in the category of PRONOUNS is defined as: increasing range of singular reflexive pronouns with an increasing range of verbs to refer to actions where the subject and object of the verb are the same. A2 Point 12: range of singular reflexive pronouns (‘myself’, ‘yourself’) with a limited range of verbs (‘enjoy’, …

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nothing | anyone | everywhere

in the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 58 in the category of PRONOUNS is defined as: wide range of indefinite pronouns as objects or complements. For example: You don’t have to show anyone any of these steps. TED *We have taken the 3 pronouns found in the EGP examples as the basis for our search in iWeb corpus: _VV nothing|anyone|everywhere …

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each other

Point 60 in the category of PRONOUNS/reciprocal is defined as: ‘each other’ as the object of a verb or complement of a preposition to talk about the mutual behaviour of two or more people. An iWeb search for: * * * each other 1 ON TOP OF EACH OTHER 13130 (note that many of these …

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too | so + much + NOUN

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 51 in the category of DETERMINERS/quantity is defined as: ‘SO MUCH’, ‘TOO MUCH’ WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS too|so much _NN1 1 SO MUCH FUN 51051 2 SO MUCH MONEY 13915 3 TOO MUCH MONEY 12901 4 TOO MUCH TROUBLE 10270 5 TOO MUCH WORK 9680 6 TOO MUCH PRESSURE 8394 7 …

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adverb + determiner

Here are a few examples of determiners premodified by intensifiers. There are hardly any phone booths left in this city.   TLC male India B1 We have nearly all the big automobile companies. TLC male India, B1   It took me virtually no time at all. Listen to this expert example B1 point 48 in the category of DETERMINERS/quantity is defined as: modify determiners with adverbs. There is clashing information in the English Grammar Profile.  The example …

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most | enough | plenty of + NOUN

B1 Point 43 in the category of DETERMINERS is defined as: increasing range of quantifying determiners with both plural nouns and uncountable nouns (‘most’, ‘enough’, ‘plenty of’, ‘loads of’). *This overlaps another B1 point. PELIC WRITING CLASS EXAMPLES: Most students eat lunch and dinner in a cafeteria. Korean, Female, Level 3   In addition, the people who lived in Korea 100 years ago didn’t have enough transportation. Korean, Male, Level 3   *Note that …

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THIS + time word

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 42 in the category of DETERMINERS/demonstratives is defined as: ‘this’ with time and date words to refer to the past. Speaking test example: When did you go to London? I went this year. TLC, Male, Italy, B1 A search in iWeb for: _VVD this_D _NNT1 1 SAID THIS WEEK 5943 2 ANNOUNCED THIS WEEK 3344 …

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several | a few of

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 39 in the category of DETERMINERS is defined as: wide range of quantifying determiners with plural nouns (‘several’, ‘millions of’, ‘a few of’). *Note that if ‘millions of’ is used as hyperbole, then it is a C1 point. TLC, Speaking test examples: There are very few sports cars in Sri Lanka. We don’t …

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HALF | ENOUGH + OF + determiner

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 Point 37 in the category of DETERMINERS is defined as: DETERMINER + ‘OF’ + DETERMINER – an increasing range of quantifying determiners (‘half of’, ‘enough of’, ‘none of”) *However, this partly clashes with the B2 Negation point for ‘none of’ FOR EXAMPLE: I can’t get enough of that feeling, and that’s why I learn a language every two years.   …

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BOTH | A FEW

Point 61 in the category of PRONOUNS/quantity is defined as: ‘BOTH’, ‘A FEW’, ‘ANOTHER’ as subject and object pronouns. *We have covered the use of ‘another’ here. A search in iWeb corpus for: . both _V 1 . BOTH ARE 48684 2 . BOTH HAVE 15241 3 . BOTH WERE 15188 4 . BOTH WILL …

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before | after + VERBing

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 61 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘before’ and ‘after’ + ‘-ing’, before or after a main clause, to refer to time. Another way to say this is: ‘after + gerund’ or ‘before + gerund’ Also, note that this point will clash with …

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extreme adverb + adjective

Let’s look at a few student speaking test examples and one from an expert using extreme adverbs modifying gradable adjectives: There are a few cases in which the parents have been excellent guides to the students, and as you know guides are extremely important for a child‘s career. TLC male India C1   Native speaker: I haven’t read it but I‘ve seen the film, have you seen the film? Student: Yes, I have, but it’s totally different from the book. TLC male India B1   It’s absolutely necessary to find a solution,  and I know that in some cases, for example,  in some sports facilities built in Madrid, they are trying to remodel the space. TLC male Spain C1   These are all details that are incredibly easy to record contemporaneously but are also incredibly easy to forget later on. …

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