used not to

The following rare student writing example shows how ‘used not to’ expresses modality: Also when I was younger, I used not to be allowed to drink coffee. PELIC Korean female level 3 grammar class. It sounds more natural to say: “I didn’t use to be allowed to drink coffee.” *In other words, she did not have permission to drink coffee.  Although now she is an adult and can. Point 227 …

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‘You know the person making them’ (reduced verbING clause)

Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined: “reduced” defining (restrictive) relative clauses with verb +-ing. This point will overlap: verb of senses + object + verbing This is difficult grammar to find in corpora since many other structures get caught.  We have done a search with a full stop to narrow out questions.  Our search string …

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reporting verbs

Point 18 in VERBS/patterns: reporting verbs, especially mental process verbs, with a clause as the direct object, without ‘that’, especially in informal contexts. *notably, in the English Grammar Profile examples, all the verbs but ‘said’ are in the present tense. There are grammar points that use this same construction but in the past at higher …

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B1 Point 24 in the category of QUESTIONS is defined as: ‘wh-‘words + the negative form of modal verbs + subject + main verb to form ‘wh-‘questions. B1 Point 26 in the category of QUESTIONS is defined as: modal verbs + ‘not’ + subject + main verb to form ‘yes/no’ questions *Note that there is …


Don’t Haven’t ?

Point 17 in the category of  QUESTIONS is defined as: auxiliary ‘do’ and ‘have’ + ‘n’t’ + subject + main verb to form negative ‘yes/no’ questions. This overlaps point 24 in the category of PRESENT/simple: NEGATIVE TAG QUESTIONS ‘don’t you think’ or ‘don’t you agree’ to look for agreement or an opinion. This also overlaps …

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‘must’ + modal adverbs

These are the 12 adverbs I would teach with “must” to advanced students: correctly, either, generally, somehow, therefore, constantly, currently, necessarily, simply, successfully, surely, satisfactorily, ultimately.