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English lexical bundles and their most frequent equivalent forms in French

In this post, we put common lexical bundles that French EFL students use in their writing, through our GRAMMAR PROFILER.  Magali Paquot wrote a paper about Lexical bundles.  Here are the significant forms found in the ICLE – FR: Here are our expert examples: You‘ll be tempted to tear it off. listen They may never be considered as such by religion, but they are just as important as the ones in your textbooks. listen Kaleb‘s art can be viewed as deeply rooted in the pop minimalism of Aureur or Baer. …

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Verb + question word + to infinitive ‘learn how to use’

The WH-adverbs: such as ‘how’, ‘when’, ‘where’, and ‘why’ are often called ‘question words’ because they typically introduce interrogative sentences.  However, in this post, we look at the way they introduce other clauses: A search in iWeb for: _V _*Q _TO _VVI   1 LEARN HOW TO USE 24468 Learn how to use it. (EVP A2 how = …

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really | always | sometimes + VERB

The first point in the English Grammar Profile! A1 point 1 in the category of ADVERBS is defined: adverbs of degree and time to modify verbs. An iWeb search for: really|always|sometimes _VV   1 REALLY WANT 213278 I really want a brother.   Listen to the pronunciation 2 REALLY LIKE 181415 3 REALLY NEED 161580 4 REALLY KNOW …

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Do you know … (indirect question)

A2 point 20 in the category of PRESENT/simple: indirect questions with ‘Do you know’ + ‘how’, ‘where’, ‘why’, or ‘what’ An iWeb search: 1 DO YOU KNOW HOW TO 6056 2 DO YOU KNOW OF ANY 4276 3 DO YOU KNOW WHAT THE 3051 Do you know what the best way to acquire a new language is? PELIC Arabic male level 4 writing class. …

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used not to

The following rare student writing example shows how ‘used not to‘ expresses modality: Also when I was younger, I used not to be allowed to drink coffee. PELIC Korean female level 3 grammar class. It sounds more natural to say: “I didn’t use to be allowed to drink coffee.” *In other words, she did not have permission to drink coffee.  Although now she is an adult and can. In the …

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‘You know the person making them’ (reduced verbING clause)

Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined: “reduced” defining (restrictive) relative clauses with verb +-ing. This point will overlap: verb of senses + object + verbing This is difficult grammar to find in corpora since many other structures get caught.  We have done a search with a full stop to narrow out questions.  Our search string …

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reporting verbs

In the English Grammar Profile, A2 point 18 in the category of VERBS/patterns is defined as: reporting verbs, especially mental process verbs, with a clause as the direct object, without ‘that’, especially in informal contexts. For example: I hope you are doing well.   *notably, in the English Grammar Profile examples, all the verbs but ‘said’ are in the present …

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NEGATIVE QUESTION + MODAL VERB

B1 Point 24 in the category of QUESTIONS is defined as: ‘wh-‘words + the negative form of modal verbs + subject + main verb to form ‘wh-‘questions. B1 Point 26 in the category of QUESTIONS is defined as: modal verbs + ‘not’ + subject + main verb to form ‘yes/no’ questions *Note that there is …

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‘What you see is what you get.’ (CLEFT CLAUSE)

The English Grammar Profile C1 point 10 in the category of FOCUS is defined as: ‘What’ + noun or pronoun + verb phrase as subject + ‘be’, for focus. Note that Pearson lists this point: GSE 59 B2 clauses with ‘What …’ to emphasise the topic or main point. For example: What we need now is a good night’s sleep. What I said was that I don’t need your help. …

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verb + THAT clause

In the English Grammar Profile, A2 point 24 in the category of VERBS/patterns is defined as: limited range of verbs, typically reporting, with a ‘that’-clause as the direct object Here are examples that are not really ‘reporting’: l just want you all to know that I care about each and every person at this table. listen Studies have shown that there are many benefits of music education. pianogen.com.au     An iWeb search for _VV that_CST * …

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10 ways ‘FAR’ is used in English grammar.

Here are 10 ways ‘far’ is used ranked by order of frequency: 1. A2 general adverb *Numbers on the right are the frequency in iWeb corpus: (RR) 1578722 ‘far‘ means ‘at, to or from a great distance in space or time‘  For example: Is it far away? I don’t live far from here. Thailand is not far from Vietnam. 2. B1 phrase ‘so far‘ means ‘until now‘ So far …

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may have + PAST PARTICIPLE

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 163 MODALITY is defined as: ‘may’ in phrases such as ‘as you may know’, or ‘as you may have’ + ‘-ed’ to focus the reader on shared knowledge. This partly overlaps point 168 MODALITY and  PAST AFFIRMATIVE of ‘may have’ + ‘-ed’ to talk about possibility in the …

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Don’t you think ? | Haven’t you heard ?

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 17 in the category of  QUESTIONS is defined as: auxiliary ‘do’ and ‘have’ + ‘n’t’ + subject + main verb to form negative ‘yes/no’ questions. This overlaps point 24 in the category of PRESENT/simple: NEGATIVE TAG QUESTIONS ‘don’t you think’ or ‘don’t you agree’ to look for agreement …

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really ought to

In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 180 in the category of MODALITY is defined as: ‘ought to’ with ‘really’ to add emphasis. A search on iWeb for clusters with lexical verbs: 1 REALLY OUGHT TO KNOW 254 2 REALLY OUGHT TO GET 136 3 REALLY OUGHT TO GO 76 4 REALLY OUGHT TO CONSIDER …

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MUST + modal adverb

These are the 12 adverbs I would teach with “must” to advanced students: correctly, either, generally, somehow, therefore, constantly, currently, necessarily, simply, successfully, surely, satisfactorily, ultimately.