research

OXFORD + CEFR

Here at EnglishGrammar.Pro, we are always looking for new resources that position language features on the CEFR scale.  Note that, unlike Cambridge which uses what students can produce, Oxford uses the receptive knowledge of students to allocate the levels.  One great resource is their phrase list. The Oxford Phrase List is a list of 750 …

OXFORD + CEFR Read More »

C1 Advanced – reading test part 1

In the C1 advanced handbook, there is a practice test for Reading and Use of English Part 1: Multiple Choice Cloze. We put the text with the answers through our English Grammar Profiler on this website and the text is clearly C2. Next, we are taking a corpus-based approach to do the test to see …

C1 Advanced – reading test part 1 Read More »

English lexical bundles and their most frequent equivalent forms in French

In this post, we put common lexical bundles that French EFL students use in their writing, through our GRAMMAR PROFILER.  Magali Paquot wrote a paper about Lexical bundles.  Here are the significant forms found in the ICLE – FR: Here are our expert examples: You‘ll be tempted to tear it off. listen They may never be considered as such by religion, but they are just as important as the ones in your textbooks. listen Kaleb‘s art can be viewed as deeply rooted in the pop minimalism of Aureur or Baer. …

English lexical bundles and their most frequent equivalent forms in French Read More »

Year 4 spelling homework

Here is a list of vocabulary a year 4 student got sent home to match with definitions.  We put the words into the 14-billion-word iWeb corpus to check the ranking of how common the words are against themselves.  Note that the number to the right is how many occurrences of the word exist in the …

Year 4 spelling homework Read More »

grammatical collocations

Here are 8 basic sub-categories of grammatical collocations:  preposition + noun (see below) noun + preposition (see below) noun + to-infinitive (research on another page) noun + that-clause (click here) adjective + preposition adjective + to-infinitive adjective + that-clause  There are 19 different verb patterns including verb + to-infinitive,  verb + bare infinitive etc. For more information read. — …

grammatical collocations Read More »

5 on the TOEFL Writing Essays?

In this post, we use our grammar profiler to predict the CEFR level of this TOEFL Integrated Writing Sample Essay. We found that the most salient language is the ability to modify adjectives and use abstract nouns.  So let’s look at this advanced text.  The profiler says the text is probably C1, which we can surmise …

5 on the TOEFL Writing Essays? Read More »

Pearson – text analyzer

The Pearson text analyzer seems to be another tool based on finding reading texts for students based only on vocabulary.  It is not going to predict the level of what a student has produced. There will be a level or two between what students can read and produce.  A B2 reading text is probably something …

Pearson – text analyzer Read More »

Duo Lingo – CEFR checker

I came across what seems to be another vocabulary only ‘predictor.  The ‘CEFR checker’ is most probably drawn from the English Vocabulary Profile. As with the ‘Write & Improve’ website’s CEFR level predictor, I put through 10 sentences that contain C2 grammar points.  Both of these gave me a prediction of B2.  The same sentences …

Duo Lingo – CEFR checker Read More »

grammarly review

I am always wondering about the negative effect that ‘Grammarly’ has on English learners’ writing ability. I have it on to help me spot basic typos, which is really useful, but learners might just click on every suggestion that it makes.  Here are some examples of incorrect ‘correction advice’ in just two sentences I was working …

grammarly review Read More »

Is the length of a word a poor way to predict English proficiency?

As mentioned in my Cambridge Learner Corpus research elsewhere, the main noticeable difference between CEFR levels is the length of sentences: shorter at A1 and longer at C2.  In this post, I wanted to do a quick search (20 sentences) on the word length (the letters in a word) using PELI corpus examples.  Surprisingly, the …

Is the length of a word a poor way to predict English proficiency? Read More »

English language profiling tools

There is some evidence that students who use text analysers do improve their English more than if they don’t use them. Ahmad, S., & Rawian, R. M. (2020). The effects of lexical profiling tools on academic writing performance. Asian Social Science and Humanities Research Journal (ASHREJ), 2(2), 96-106.

New Academic Word List vocabulary not in the English Vocabulary Profile

Until June 2021, the English Grammar Profiler tool that automatically tags grammar and vocabulary used both the EVP and the AWL for the same words which was making level prediction less accurate.  Today we have removed the AWL tagging to allow for the full EVP to highlight its levels across vocabulary more accurately.  Instead of …

New Academic Word List vocabulary not in the English Vocabulary Profile Read More »

-able adjective suffix

Most words that end in -able are adjectives. Here we list in order of most to least frequent those found in the top 100 on iWeb corpus.  These are not found much in the lower proficiency levels.  It would be wiser to teach vocabulary this way at upper-intermediate and above. They are AVAILABLE, COMFORTABLE, VALUABLE, …

-able adjective suffix Read More »

topics and tags

This is a personal note for the direction in future. All the research posts should use the tagging taxonomy to choose a number of nouns that are best to use alongside the grammar. It is already clear, where possible I choose, for example, B1 vocabulary to go with B2 grammar for being able to understand …

topics and tags Read More »

complexity pies

How do I predict the writing level using the pie chart in the ‘complexity checker‘ software? C2 language from CLC If more than 33% of a text is highlighted above A2 then it is probably from a C2 or proficient English writer. Or in other words,  66% of it is not basic A1 and A2.  …

complexity pies Read More »

Research

My education includes: A Post Graduate Certificate in Education with a GPA of 6. Three of the units were in TESOL and one was in educational research. (2020) Prior to that, I have a Bachelor in Visual Arts, but also two years of a Bachelor of Education – secondary teaching. (1995) I have also completed …

Research Read More »