if

IF clause + SHALL clause

Here’s an expert example of using a conditional clause + ‘shall’ clause to express modality: Come on, if we don’t share a similar social consciousness, how shall we discuss social problems? Listen to this sentence. C2 point 225 in the category of MODALITY is defined: ‘shall’ in the main clause after an ‘if-‘ clause conditionals Long open queries are impossible on iWeb, so here we first look for the …

IF clause + SHALL clause Read More »

if + necessary | any | anything | in doubt (subject and verb ellipsis)

Here are EXPERT EXAMPLES of subject and verb ellipsis after ‘if’: When you speak your character’s words, you can hear whether they sound natural, and fix them if necessary. TED *If necessary = if it is necessary. Unlike the billions of people who have few options, if any, due to war, poverty or illness, you have plentiful opportunities to live decisively. TED *if any = if there are any.     Planet Radio If in doubt, don’t drive. *if in doubt = in you are in doubt. GSE 66 B2 omit …

if + necessary | any | anything | in doubt (subject and verb ellipsis) Read More »

‘ONLY IF’ + (inverted conditional)

GSE 71 B2+ describe present or future outcomes of a hypothetical situation using initial ‘only if’ with inversion of subject and object. ‘Only if’ + first/second conditional with inversion The complexity of this structure is highly unlikely to be B2 as Pearson has it listed.  The most similar EGP construction is ‘Only when’ + first …

‘ONLY IF’ + (inverted conditional) Read More »

wouldn’t

Point 15 in MODALITY is defined: would negative forms *It is incredibly hard to find an example that is not already a part of another grammar point. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I’m convinced that it wouldn’t take much time to change the system  and think about how to add new things  in order to help people to start the workday in a more enjoyable manner. French male level 4 writing class. An iWeb search for: would _XX * * * 1 WOULD NOT BE …

wouldn’t Read More »

imperative

Here are two A2 English Grammar Profile points in different categories. Point 39 in the category of CLAUSES is defined: affirmative imperative with the base form of a main verb Point 7 in NEGATION:  negative imperatives of main verbs with ‘don’t’ + main verb. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: Include every ingredient for every recipe on your grocery list. Then, take your list to the refrigerator or cupboard and check off the items you have on hand. After, prepare unique food for your guests. Keep it simple. Turkish female level …

imperative Read More »

TO infinitive (purpose)

Point 32 in the category of CLAUSES: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘to’, to introduce purpose PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: To learn English, just follow these steps. Arabic male level 3 writing class. An iWeb search for: . _TO * * * 1 . TO DO THIS , 35825 2 . TO LEARN MORE ABOUT 29344 3 . TO DO SO , 15803 …

TO infinitive (purpose) Read More »

Let’s + VERB

point 29 in CLAUSES: ‘let’s’ + base form of a main verb, for first person plural imperatives to make a suggestion PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: Let’s discuss each change and see some examples of them. Arabic male level 5 writing class. An iWeb search for: Let_VM21 * * * * 1 LET ‘S TAKE A LOOK 31229 2 LET ‘S FACE IT , 17868 3 …

Let’s + VERB Read More »

manner adverbs

Point 28 in ADVERBS is defined: limited range of manner adverbs and adverb phrases to modify how something happens. PELIC STUDENTS: The most important thing is to practise because with no practise, you will forget quickly. Arabic male level 3 writing class.   Yesterday I woke up early because I had a test. Arabic male level 2 writing class. *’early’ is more of a time adverb. A search in iWeb for: _VV *ly_RR . 1 …

manner adverbs Read More »

MUST (ellipsis of following verb.)

Point 71 in the category of MODALITY: ‘must’ with the following verb ellipted where the previous main verb is understood *Ellipted subject is also B1. EXAMPLE of a following verb ellipted: We can do this because we must. An iWeb search for: * * * must_VM .|! *we have removed incorrectly tagged ‘must’ as a noun. 1 , IF YOU MUST …

MUST (ellipsis of following verb.) Read More »

‘Not sure if it is.’ (NOT + non-finite or ellipted clause)

Let’s look at the most common examples of non-finite or ellipted claused used after ‘not’. Usually, we would say: I am not sure if it is possible. But we can remove the subject and verb to make an ellipted clause: Not sure if it is possible. We can also say: This is a petrol car …

‘Not sure if it is.’ (NOT + non-finite or ellipted clause) Read More »

ALWAYS + past simple

Point 25 in the category of PAST simple  is defined as: habitual states or actions. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: They always went back late. Chinese male, level 3, writing class. Both examples in the EGP follow the pattern ‘always + past simple verb’ An iWeb search for: always _VVD * * * 1 ALWAYS THOUGHT IT WOULD BE 680 …

ALWAYS + past simple Read More »

I suggest | apologise | recommend

Point 21 in the category of PRESENT/simple is defined: a limited range of speech act verbs, including ‘suggest’, ‘apologise’, ‘recommend’. *Some of these will clash with C1:  suggest-recommend-insist + present-simple   PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: In conclusion, I suggest that international students whose English abilities are not strong enough should study in the ELI for at least one term before attending colleges or universities. Chinese male – level 5 writing class. A search for: I suggest|recommend|apologize * …

I suggest | apologise | recommend Read More »

say | show

Point 26 in the category of PRESENT/simple is defined as: a limited range of reporting verbs, including ‘say’, ‘show’ EXPERT EXAMPLE: This map shows the presence of agriculture on planet Earth.   PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: Some people say that money is the root of all evil, but I disagree with it. Korean male, writing class. _P show|shows|say|says * * * We have removed lines that are not informative: 12 IT SAYS ON …

say | show Read More »

I remember | believe | understand | hear (that) + CLAUSE

In the English Grammar Profile at B1, point 28 in the category of PRESENT/simple is defined: an increasing range of mental process verbs, including ‘remember’, ‘understand’, ‘believe’ A similar addition to this point is Pearson’s GSE 62 B2 speak about information acquired from others using ‘hear’ + ‘(that +)’ complement clause. I hear that John and Susie are getting married. I’ve heard that Martin ‘s lost his job. …

I remember | believe | understand | hear (that) + CLAUSE Read More »

which one

Point 44 in the category of PRONOUNS/substitution is defined as: ‘one’ after ‘which’ in indirect questions to refer to one of two or more options. *not all the examples are ‘indirect questions’ in the EGP examples. A search in iWeb for: which one * * * 1 WHICH ONE IS RIGHT FOR 2225 2 WHICH …

which one Read More »

this one | that one

Here are two grammar points in the English Grammar Profile’s category of Pronouns at B1 that should be merged into one. Point 43 this one’, ‘that one’ as a substitute for countable singular nouns that have previously been mentioned. Point 64 THIS ONE’, ‘THAT ONE’” to refer to a singular countable noun. Searches in iWeb …

this one | that one Read More »

himself | herself | myself | yourself

There are three very similar B1 points in the English Grammar Profile in the Category of PRONOUNS/singular reflexive Point 45 is defined as: ‘myself’, ‘yourself’, ‘himself’ and ‘herself’ after prepositions where the object of the preposition is the same as the subject of the verb. Point 65 is: ‘myself’, ‘yourself’, ‘himself’ and ‘herself’ for emphasis. …

himself | herself | myself | yourself Read More »

plus

The use of the conjunction ‘plus’ is covered at two different grammar points in the EGP. Point 14 in CONJUNCTIONS/coordinating is defined as: ‘PLUS’ WITH NOUNS often in relation to numbers. Point 12 is: ‘plus’ to connect clauses and sentences, often to point out a positive addition or advantage. *The word ‘plus’ is difficult to …

plus Read More »