do

used not to

The following rare student writing example shows how ‘used not to’ expresses modality: Also when I was younger, I used not to be allowed to drink coffee. PELIC Korean female level 3 grammar class. It sounds more natural to say: “I didn’t use to be allowed to drink coffee.” *In other words, she did not have permission to drink coffee.  Although now she is an adult and can. Point 227 …

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BE | HAVE | DO

Here is another English Grammar Profile point that overlaps multiple categories making it quite difficult to choose which criterion best suits. Point 40 in the category of CLAUSES is defined: AFFIRMATIVE INTERROGATIVE: (‘yes/no’ forms) with auxiliary ‘be’ and ‘have’. The EGP examples: Are you going to the new art class? Have you got a new dress for the party? Point 17 in the category of VERBS is defined: AUXILIARY VERBS …

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negative question (seeking agreement)

B1 Point 21 in the category of QUESTIONS is defined as: negative ‘yes/no’ questions to involve the listener or reader by seeking agreement. B1 point 4 in the category of PRESENT/simple is defined as: NEGATIVE TAG QUESTIONS ‘don’t you think’ or ‘don’t you agree’ to look for agreement or an opinion. *This is hard to …

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DO + verb (imperative)

Point 64 in the category of CLAUSES/imperatives is defined as: ‘DO’: base form of a main verb, for emphasis or in formal contexts A search in iWeb for: . Do _VVI 1 . DO NOTE 2681 2 . DO KEEP 1323 (‘keep in mind’ is the most common here which is B2) 3 . DO …

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do + VERB

Point 79 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: auxiliary verb ‘do’ in an affirmative declarative clause, for emphasis and affirmation. A search in iWeb for: do _VVI 1 DO KNOW 89665 2 DO GET 69098 3 DO THINK 68682 I do think that it is important for people who are being instructed in writing to know their stuff. yahoo.com 4 DO NEED 64647 5 DO LIKE 50742 …

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DON’T LET + pronoun (permission/order)

Point 117 in CLAUSES/imperatives is defined as: an imperative clause with ‘let’ + ‘him/her/them’ + base form of a main verb, to disallow something or instruct someone to disallow something *I disagree that ‘him|her|them’ should be the only pronouns that point to this level of complexity. An iWeb search for: Do _XX let _P _V …

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Don’t you!

Point 135 in CLAUSES/imperatives is defined as: you with an imperative form to make an instruction stronger. This overlaps with Point 31 NEGATION imperative instruction warning reprimand. iWeb doesn’t allow for a search for . Do n’t you COCA does but we must manually search for exclamations: 34 2011 FIC Bk:SilverGirlNovel “Freddy, wait! Don’t leave. …

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