by

manner adverbs

Point 28 in ADVERBS is defined: limited range of manner adverbs and adverb phrases to modify how something happens. PELIC STUDENTS: The most important thing is to practise because with no practise, you will forget quickly. Arabic male level 3 writing class.   Yesterday I woke up early because I had a test. Arabic male level 2 writing class. *’early’ is more of a time adverb. A search in iWeb for: _VV *ly_RR . 1 …

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You might

Point 92 in MODALITY: ‘might’ to make polite suggestions and give advice. We cannot automatically check a corpus for usage, but we can follow the EGP examples which both contain the pronoun ‘you’. An iWeb search for: You might * * * 1 YOU MIGHT BE ABLE TO 32578 You might be able to use a hammer …

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‘Not sure if it is.’ (NOT + non-finite or ellipted clause)

Let’s look at the most common examples of non-finite or ellipted claused used after ‘not’. Usually, we would say: I am not sure if it is possible. But we can remove the subject and verb to make an ellipted clause: Not sure if it is possible. We can also say: This is a petrol car …

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ordering past events

Point 35 in the category of PAST is defined: past simple to order sequences of events in the past, in the context of narratives. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I looked at the sheet and thought about it and then I continued following my sheet. When I noticed that I should have arrived, I called my brother and he told me that I had the wrong directions. Arabic male, level 5 grammar class. Two of the EGP examples use ‘and then’ while one only uses ‘and’ to connect past …

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passive + BY + noun phrase

A2 point 2 in the category of PASSIVES : ‘BY’ to add information about something already known. B1 point 12 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: passive with ‘by’ to give focus. *note any use of ‘by’ is at least A2 in the EVP. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: All Chinese fields are owned by the Chinese government. Chinese female Level 3 …

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himself | herself | myself | yourself

There are three very similar B1 points in the English Grammar Profile in the Category of PRONOUNS/singular reflexive Point 45 is defined as: ‘myself’, ‘yourself’, ‘himself’ and ‘herself’ after prepositions where the object of the preposition is the same as the subject of the verb. Point 65 is: ‘myself’, ‘yourself’, ‘himself’ and ‘herself’ for emphasis. …

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phrase + OR + phrase ? (alternative question)

Point 22 in the category of QUESTIONS is defined as: alternative questions with two phrases combined with ‘or’. If we follow the patterns in the EGP examples and search in iWeb with them: or _I _A _NN ? 1 OR IN THE FUTURE? 152 EXAMPLE: 3 missguided.co.uk Where can we see you perform next or in the future? 2 OR OVER THE PHONE? …

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If so (ellipted)

Point 43 in the category of CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: ELLIPTED ‘IF SO’, CONFIRMING to refer a previous direct or indirect ‘yes-no’ question where the answer might be ‘yes’.   For example: But then I began to wonder whether a game or an app can really change attitudes and behaviors, and if so, can I measure that change?   A search in iWeb for: ? If so * * 1 ? IF SO , …

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superlative + noun + postmodifier

Here are examples of superlative phrases post-modified.   Daily Telegraph You‘re taught how to run in the most efficient way possible to make it feel easy. You’re the best choice by far. Listen A year ago, Amy being pregnant would have been the best thing ever! listen C1 point 68 in the category of adjectives is defined as: postmodifier to make the superlative stronger, in the structure superlative + noun + postmodifier ‘possible’, ‘ever’, ‘by far’ For example: It’s one of the most influential artworks ever made. A …

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THIS (pronoun)

Here are a few English Grammar Profile points in the category of PRONOUNS/demonstratives which are hard to locate manually in corpora: A2 point 10: ‘this’ to refer to something that is happening now. A2 point 36: ‘this’ as a pronoun with singular reference. B1 point 41: ‘this’ as a pronoun to refer back to whole …

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indefinite pronouns: SOMEBODY SOMEONE EVERYBODY EVERYONE

Here’s a student example of the indefinite pronoun ‘everyone’ in the subject position with a singular verb: Everyone knows Istanbul. PELIC Turkish male level 3 writing class. The indefinite pronouns: ‘SOMEBODY’, ‘SOMEONE’, ‘EVERYBODY’ and ‘EVERYONE’ are all listed at A2 in the English Vocabulary Profile.  As far as CEFR level allocation, it doesn’t make any difference …

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Pittsburgh learner corpus & complexity checker

I am always looking for true learner texts to see how the complexity checker will perform.  EnglishGrammar.Pro is very lucky to have access to a very large and clearly documented learner corpus. PELIC is based on data collected from students at the English Language Institute (ELI) at the University of Pittsburgh from 2005-2012…. The IEP data include …

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simple prepositions (range)

When it comes to single word grammar points such as single-word prepositions, the English Vocabulary Profile is much better at explaining range than the English Grammar Profile.  For that reason, this post will only cover the prepositions appearing in the EGP examples. A1 is defined: prepositional phrases with a preposition and a noun phrase. limited …

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10 ways ‘FAR’ is used in English grammar.

Here are 10 ways ‘far’ is used ranked by order of frequency: 1. A2 general adverb *Numbers on the right are the frequency in iWeb corpus: (RR) 1578722 ‘far‘ means ‘at, to or from a great distance in space or time‘  For example: Is it far away? I don’t live far from here. Thailand is not far from Vietnam. 2. B1 phrase ‘so far‘ means ‘until now‘ So far …

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