have

used not to

The following rare student writing example shows how ‘used not to’ expresses modality: Also when I was younger, I used not to be allowed to drink coffee. PELIC Korean female level 3 grammar class. It sounds more natural to say: “I didn’t use to be allowed to drink coffee.” *In other words, she did not have permission to drink coffee.  Although now she is an adult and can. Point 227 …

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Academic IELTS grammar for writing task 2

I put this advanced student sample answer to the IELTS writing task 2 through our English Grammar Profiler looking for stand out features.  Here are the highest grammar constructions, that we have listed as C1: It is argued that volunteering should be made a part of the school curriculum. (This is the topic sentence) What you have done outside the classroom is often …

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future perfect passive

Here’s an EXPERT EXAMPLE of future perfect passive: If you live to 90, then 32 years will have been spent entirely asleep. TED PEARSON GSE 67 B2+ future perfect passive simple is oddly unlisted in the English Grammar Profile.  The EGP does have perfect passive at B2, but no mention of it with ‘will have been + past participle’.  For that reason here we …

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‘BUT FOR’ (third conditional)

We know that ‘but for’ + a phrase means except for or if it were not for. At C1, this structure can be combined with a ‘would have clause’  so it is similar to a past conditional.  All together this construction means “if it wasn’t for this thing that happened, then this other thing was …

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NOT ONLY + present perfect continuous (inversion) + BUT

Point 92 in the category of PAST is defined: present perfect continuous, invert the subject and affirmative auxiliary verb with ‘not only … but’ as a focusing device EXAMPLE: Not only has Pablo been talking publicly for the first time about being an orphan, but together, we started a live storytelling series we’re calling Talk Rx, and it’s become a really popular place for his peers to show their most vulnerable and powerful thoughts and feelings. TED

present perfect simple (unfinished)

Point 20 in the category of PAST is defined: present perfect simple: UNFINISHED refer to a state or period of time which is unlimited or indefinite. This is too hard to locate automatically without overlapping other points in the EGP. EXPERT EXAMPLE: I love calling COVID Rona as if this is a person that has crashed our good time over the last year. wnpr.org

BE | HAVE | DO

Here is another English Grammar Profile point that overlaps multiple categories making it quite difficult to choose which criterion best suits. Point 40 in the category of CLAUSES is defined: AFFIRMATIVE INTERROGATIVE: (‘yes/no’ forms) with auxiliary ‘be’ and ‘have’. The EGP examples: Are you going to the new art class? Have you got a new dress for the party? Point 17 in the category of VERBS is defined: AUXILIARY VERBS …

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I have to admit

Point 72 in MODALITY is defined: the fixed expression: ‘I have to admit’ for emphasis PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: When I want to talk about my weaknesses in writing in English, I have to admit the new words are my main problem. Arabic male, level 4 writing class.   TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: Therefore, I have to admit that it’s true with most old people, but with my parents,  I think that before I was born they hoped that they were going to have a girl. male China C1 *There are only a few …

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TO HAVE TO

Point 117 in the category of MODALITY is defined: ‘have to’ as an infinitive form *This will overlap sometimes with B2 adjectives followed by an infinitive. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: A child is very expensive, this causes parents to have to work more, which can lead to frustration and anger. Taiwanese female, level 4 writing class. An iWeb search for: * _TO have _TO _VVI 1 GOING TO HAVE TO GET 4269 …

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present perfect simple negative + YET

Point 13 in the category of PAST is defined: present perfect simple negative with ‘yet’ to talk about events which are expected to be completed at some point in the future. 1 HAS N’T HAPPENED YET 1853 2 HAVE N’T SEEN YET 777 3 HAVEN’T DECIDED YET 699 PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I haven’t decided yet, but maybe I will buy a snowboard here and try the …

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present perfect simple (range)

There is no listing in the English Grammar Profile for a ‘wide‘ range of main verbs with present perfect simple.  So, here’s an expert example of present perfect simple using academic collocation: In the course of my professional life, I have acquired knowledge and manual skill.    (linotype.com) Here are some general range points in the English Grammar Profile in the category of …

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present perfect continuous question

Point 31 in the category of PAST: present perfect continuous: QUESTIONS with a limited range of verbs. PELIC STUDENT: What have you been doing? Arabic male, Level 4 grammar class. An iWeb search for: have|has _P been _VVG 1 HAVE YOU BEEN WORKING 1224 2 HAVE YOU BEEN LOOKING 1218 3 HAVE YOU BEEN USING 914 4 HAVE YOU …

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present perfect simple + SINCE

Point 33 in the category of PAST is defined as: present perfect simple + ‘since’ to talk about duration. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I have read a lot of books about cooking since then. Chinese male, level 3 writing class.   We have been friends since we were high-school students. Korean female, level 3 writing class. An iWeb search for: _VH _VVN since *we removed ‘had’ 1 HAS CHANGED SINCE 11097 …

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as you might (SHARED KNOWLEDGE)

Point 90 in MODALITY is defined as: ‘might’ in phrases, such as ‘as you might know’, ‘have already heard’, to focus the reader on shared knowledge. 1 AS YOU MIGHT EXPECT , 6532 2 AS YOU MIGHT THINK . 3862 3 AS YOU MIGHT IMAGINE , 3657 4 AS YOU MIGHT HAVE GUESSED 2253 As …

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present perfect simple negative (wide range of verbs)

Point 84 in the category of PAST: present perfect simple with the full negative forms with a wide range of verbs, often in formal contexts. An iWeb search for: _N have|has not _VVN 1 POLICE HAVE NOT RELEASED 590 2 GOD HAS NOT GIVEN 328 3 CANCER HAS NOT SPREAD 302 4 STUDIES HAVE NOT …

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