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5 on the TOEFL Writing Essays?

In this post, we use our grammar profiler to predict the CEFR level of this TOEFL Integrated Writing Sample Essay. We found that the most salient language is the ability to modify adjectives and use abstract nouns.  So let’s look at this advanced text.  The profiler says the text is probably C1, which we can surmise …

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‘It is for you to decide.’ (FOR +TO infinitive clause)

Pearson’s GSE 58 B1+ clause + ‘for’ to introduce an infinitive clause with a different subject.  The important thing is for you to arrive on time. My aim is for my children to go to university. A search in iWeb for: _VB for * _TO _VVI 1 IS FOR YOU TO DECIDE 392 (most examples with this string contained ‘whether’ or ‘whether or not’ which is C2.) 2 IS FOR YOU …

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‘BUT FOR’ (third conditional)

We know that ‘but for’ + a phrase means except for or if it were not for. At C1, this structure can be combined with a ‘would have clause’  so it is similar to a past conditional.  All together this construction means “if it wasn’t for this thing that happened, then this other thing was …

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had been + VERBing

Point 27 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous: an action or event which began before a point in the past and was still continuing up to that point, often with ‘for’ or ‘since’, to give background information. Point 32 in the PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous: background action …

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As for myself

Point 119 in PRONOUNS/reflexive is defined as: ‘as for myself’ as a discourse marker to introduce or focus on a personal opinion. FOR EXAMPLE: As for myself, I have some ideas about where we went wrong this time, and one day I may call on you once more. listen     TechRaptor As for myself, I am an artist in the loosest possible definition of the word; that is to say, I make art. 16 Dec 2020 A search in iWeb corpus for: . As …

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WERE IT NOT FOR

‘were it not for’ + noun phrase expresses that someone or something prevented something from happening.  For example: Were it not for the cataclysmic events which overtook them, it’s entirely possible that raptors, rather than humans,  would have become the dominant species on this planet. Listen C2 point 132 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: ‘Were it not for’ + noun phrase to introduce conditions in formal contexts. *The big corpora do not …

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adverb + prepositional phrase

Point 65 in the category of ADVERBS/phrases is defined as: post-modify adverbs with a complex prepositional phrase complement, to highlight information. *This will overlap stance adverbs in the initial position. A search in iWeb for: . *ly_RR _I * * 1 . LUCKILY FOR US , 1429 2 . LUCKILY FOR YOU, 1236 Luckily for you, the fire will destroy most of …

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modifier + adverb + complement

Point 67 in the category of ADVERBS is defined as: adverb phrases with modifiers before, and complements after, adverbs. There is an interactive word tree of this grammar by clicking here. A search in iWeb for the pattern in the two examples in the EGP: _V (almost|so)_R _RR _I 1 WORKED SO HARD FOR 1573 …

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If it hadn’t been for / had it not been for + modal

Point 91 in the PAST category of the English Grammar Profile, we can give reasons with this structure which collocates with: If it hadn’t been for + up to 9 spaces to the right in the COCA corpus (I changed to this corpus because iWeb and NOW corpora were not allowing or providing much information): …

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