considered

English lexical bundles and their most frequent equivalent forms in French

In this post, we put common lexical bundles that French EFL students use in their writing, through our GRAMMAR PROFILER.  Magali Paquot wrote a paper about Lexical bundles.  Here are the significant forms found in the ICLE – FR: Here are our expert examples: You‘ll be tempted to tear it off. listen They may never be considered as such by religion, but they are just as important as the ones in your textbooks. listen Kaleb‘s art can be viewed as deeply rooted in the pop minimalism of Aureur or Baer. …

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to be being

There is no entry in the English Grammar Profile for the continuous infinitive passive.  Therefore, we say this is a C2 grammar structure. A search in NOW corpus for: * to be being * 1 BELIEVED TO BE BEING HELD 18 The following example has past passive + infinitive + continuous passive: The driver of the lorry was believed to be being held by police. …

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passive + TO infinitve (belief or opinion)

Point 73 GSE B2+ is defined: express impersonal belief and opinion using ‘thought/considered/believed/etc.’ +’ to’ + VP infSTUDENT STUDENT EXAMPLES: Moreover, English is considered to be an international language. PELIC Thai male level 5 writing class.   In addition, he is believed to be the first teacher, because the first education system in ancient China was established by Confucius. PELIC Chinese male level 5 grammar class. EXPERT EXAMPLE: After all, the first intentional human burial is thought to have occurred around 100,000 years ago. …

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present perfect simple (range)

There is no listing in the English Grammar Profile for a ‘wide‘ range of main verbs with present perfect simple.  So, here’s an expert example of present perfect simple using academic collocation: In the course of my professional life, I have acquired knowledge and manual skill.    (linotype.com) Here are some general range points in the English Grammar Profile in the category of …

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present perfect simple negative question

Point 18 in the category of PAST is defined as: present perfect simple negative question *This point overlaps point 17 b1 negative questions. TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST: (discussing match-fixing in soccer) Haven’t you heard about the Italians? male Spain C2 An iWeb search for: VH _XX * _VVN ? 1 HAVE N’T YOU HEARD ? 164 2 HAVE N’T …

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had not + PAST PARTICIPLE

Point 24 in the category of PAST perfect simple: negative forms. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: At that time, I had not found my job and I had a lot of free time. Chinese male, level 3 writing class. A search on iWeb for: _VHD _XX _VVN 1 HAD N’T SEEN 10519 2 HAD NOT SEEN 8370 3 HAD N’T HEARD 6433 4 HAD N’T THOUGHT 5405 5 …

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passive + BY + noun phrase

In the English Grammar Profile, A2 point 2 in the category of PASSIVES : ‘BY’ to add information about something already known. B1 point 12 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: passive with ‘by’ to give focus. All the A2 examples use the pronoun IT  + is|was + past participle  + by The one …

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present simple passive negative

B1 Point 10 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: PRESENT SIMPLE, NEGATIVE + range of pronoun and noun subjects *although ‘range of subjects’ is mentioned above, there is no entry for present simple negative elsewhere. There is no way to automatically check whether  these might actually be C1: ‘it’ with the passive voice …

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might | may not + have + PAST PARTICIPLE (past possibility)

Here are the most common verbs found in this grammar structure with examples:

You MIGHT NOT HAVE KNOWN about the party.
She MIGHT NOT HAVE THOUGHT you were serious.
They MIGHT NOT HAVE HEARD that you were coming.

The negative past modal meaning expressed here is of possibility.

It can | could + be + said | argued | concluded | considered

The pronoun ‘it’ can be used where the subject is unclear at C1, and verbs such as ‘conclude’ are only used by C1 learners.  For example: It was concluded that it never existed. However, this post is about reporting with modal verbs. C1 point 208 in MODALITY is defined as: ‘can’ in passive reporting clauses in a more formal impersonal …

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Verb + TO infinitive (range)

A2 point 25 in VERBs/patterns: increasing range of verbs followed by a ‘to’-infinitive. A2 examples include: hope to go remember to bring (this clashes with the B2 point for a change of meaning verb forms) forget to come. B1 Point 43 in VERBS/patterns is defined as: a wide range of verbs followed by a ‘to-‘ infinitive Two …

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At the end of the day (FOCUS EXPRESSIONS)

‘at the end of the day‘ can be used literally, meaning the time of day, but is also an informal phrase that means:  when everything is taken into consideration.   *It contains the most common 5 part N-gram in English: ‘at the end of the’ iWeb 392146 English Grammar Profile C1 Point 8 in the category …

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‘It is said that …’ (IT + passive)

Let’s take a look at an IELTS writing task 2 example with this grammar: It is argued that volunteering should be made a part of the school curriculum. In the above example, ‘is argued‘ forms the passive part.  The active form of this is probably: ‘People argue that…” In our example, ‘people’ is not important or maybe we don’t know who …

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past perfect simple + adverb

B2 point 54 in the category of  PAST is defined as: past perfect simple with a wide range of adverbs (including ‘finally’, ‘recently’, ‘simply’) in the normal mid-position. B1 point 46 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect simple with a limited range of adverbs (including ‘never’, ‘ever’, ‘just’, ‘always’, ‘already’) in …

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present continuous passive + range of verbs

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 21 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as PRESENT CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE with an increasing range of verbs A search in iWeb corpus: 1 IS BEING USED 45742 2 ARE BEING USED 25289 3 IS BEING HELD 21147 4 IS BEING MADE 14558 5 ARE BEING MADE 14380 …

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had not been + PAST PARTICIPLE

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 17 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: PAST PERFECT passive SIMPLE negative form. A search on iWeb corpus for had _xx been _vvn The most common in ranking order are: SEEN, MADE, GIVEN, USED, PAID, TOLD, and TAKEN. Ranked 9 is ‘HAD NOT BEEN INFORMED’   …

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was | were being + PAST PARTICIPLE

Here’s an example of past continuous affirmative passive. He was being used. listen B2 English Grammar point 16 in PASSIVES is defined as: PAST CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE A search in iWeb for: _vbd being _vvn B1 Vocabulary found in the first 50 most common Ngrams includes: attacked, considered, developed, filmed and interviewed. USED, HELD, MADE, TAKEN are the …

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going | have | need | want + TO BE + past participle

Here’s an example of an infinitive passive structure. He said it was the summation of the parts working together in such a way that nothing needed to be added, taken away, or altered. listen The English Grammar Profile B1 point 4 in the category of passives is defined as: an infinitive after a limited number of forms including ‘going to’, ‘have to’, ‘need to’, ‘want to’. *Note that Pearson lists this as: GSE 59 B2 …

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ought to have + PAST PARTICIPLE

In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 202 in MODALITY is defined as: PAST AFFIRMATIVE ‘ought to have’ + ‘-ed’ to refer to desired states of affairs in the past. This structure can express regret or show that something did not happen or was not the case in the past. For example: l ought to have stayed in Kentucky where l belong. listen In …

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