VVG

_VV stands for lexical verbs.

_VVG is the CLAWS 7 tag for ING forms.

This could include the non-finite verb form, gerunds, continuous form of verbs, some adjectives.

For example eating_VVG

*Tagging is never perfect.

WITH + determiner + noun + to Verb-ing

The following English Vocabulary Profile C1 entry: with a view to doing sth FORMAL =  so that you can do something inspired this post as a grammar structure, regardless of the meaning, the complexity of two prepositional phrases with the second complemented with a gerund is clearly advanced grammar. A search in the NOW corpus …

WITH + determiner + noun + to Verb-ing Read More »

ing forms

On this website, ing forms are best located in our posts by searching for the tag: VVG A search in the iWeb corpus for _VVG gives the most common ing forms as follows: 1 USING 9077632 2 GOING 8570578 3 MAKING 4986719 4 LOOKING 4903064 5 WORKING 4440144 6 GETTING 4427697 7 TAKING 3186185 8 …

ing forms Read More »

BE + banned from + VERB-ing

In this post, we explore the passive + prepositional phrase with gerund complement: ‘Be banned from doing‘ For example: I was banned from seeing her. listen You‘re banned from busking. listen In the English Vocabulary Profile, ‘ban’ is listed at B2: VERB [T usually passive] (-nn-) to forbid something, especially officially NOUN [C] an official order that prevents something from happening An iWeb …

BE + banned from + VERB-ing Read More »

can’t bear + to-infinitive

In the English Vocabulary Profile at B2, ‘bear’ is defined: accept someone or something unpleasant For example: I can’t bear to see him like this. listen *There are other uses of ‘bear’ that are more advanced.  However, the sense defined above has a distinct grammar pattern: (CAN | COULD) (often negative) + bear + (to-infinitive | Verb-ing | noun phrase) Verb-ing …

can’t bear + to-infinitive Read More »

past continuous affirmative

Here’s an expert example of past continuous affirmative: I was trying to get you back. Listen to the pronunciation of this verb phrase. Here are two English Grammar Profile points in the category of PAST: A2 point 10 past continuous: actions and states in progress around a particular time in the past. A2 point 16 past continuous: show that an event …

past continuous affirmative Read More »

‘You know the person making them’ (reduced verbING clause)

Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined: “reduced” defining (restrictive) relative clauses with verb +-ing. This point will overlap: verb of senses + object + verbing This is difficult grammar to find in corpora since many other structures get caught.  We have done a search with a full stop to narrow out questions.  Our search string …

‘You know the person making them’ (reduced verbING clause) Read More »

IT NEEDS REPLACING. (‘need’ + gerund)

Although gerunds are covered in a few different ways across a few CEFR levels in the English Grammar Profile, there is no entry given to the use of a gerund after ‘need’ as MODALITY which is listed by PEARSON: GSE 63 B2 ‘need’ with verbs in the gerund to express necessity. ‘need’ + Verb Phrase …

IT NEEDS REPLACING. (‘need’ + gerund) Read More »

NOT ONLY + present perfect continuous (inversion) + BUT

Adverb expressions such as ‘not only’, ‘not just’, and ‘not simply’ emphasize that something is true, but it is not the whole truth.  These co-ordinate clauses. In the English Grammar Profile, C2 point 92 in the category of PAST is defined: present perfect continuous, invert the subject and affirmative auxiliary verb with ‘not only … but’ …

NOT ONLY + present perfect continuous (inversion) + BUT Read More »

I am asking | wanting (polite)

C2 English Grammar Profile point 38 in the category of PRESENT/continuous is defined as: POLITENESS: with verbs that are not usually used in this form to make statements and requests sound less direct. EXAMPLES: I am asking us to use our power to choose. I am asking us to level up. TED We are asking businesses not to produce and consumers not to go out and consume. TED An iWeb search for I|We am|are asking|wanting * …

I am asking | wanting (polite) Read More »

BE | HAVE | DO (auxiliary verbs)

Here is another group of A2 English Grammar Profile points that overlap multiple categories.  Many of these could be all merged into one point. Point 3 in the category of QUESTIONS: yes/no AUXILIARY ‘BE’ + subject + the continuous A search in NOW corpus for: _VB _P _VVG 1 ARE YOU GOING 38887 2 ARE …

BE | HAVE | DO (auxiliary verbs) Read More »

will not be VERBing

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 32 in the category of FUTURE is defined: future continuous NEGATIVE WITH ‘WILL’ (won’t) An iWeb search for: wo|will _X be _VVG 1 GETTING 2959 2 GOING 2821 3 USING 2817 4 USING 2040 5 MAKING 1550 6 WILL NOT BE RETURNING 1537 Mamamia Kim Cattrall will not be returning as Samantha. …

will not be VERBing Read More »

‘Not sure if it is.’ (NOT + non-finite or ellipted clause)

Let’s look at the most common examples of non-finite or ellipted claused used after ‘not’. Usually, we would say: I am not sure if it is possible. But we can remove the subject and verb to make an ellipted clause: Not sure if it is possible. We can also say: This is a petrol car …

‘Not sure if it is.’ (NOT + non-finite or ellipted clause) Read More »

past continuous question

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 28 in the category of PAST is defined: past continuous question form Here’s an iWeb search for: was|were _P _VVG *not all these will lead to questions. 1 WERE YOU THINKING 2389 EXPERT EXAMPLE: What were you thinking? stuff.co.nz 2 WAS I GOING 2198 3 WERE THEY THINKING 1716 4 WERE YOU …

past continuous question Read More »

present perfect continuous questions

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 31 in the category of PAST is defined: present perfect continuous: QUESTIONS with a limited range of verbs. Note that questions are generally low frequency in the CLC probably due to lack of spoken data. *Also note that there are no other entries for ‘range of verbs’ PELIC …

present perfect continuous questions Read More »

because + past continuous

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 37 in the category of PAST/continuous  is defined: give a reason for something, often with ‘because’ PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I could not focus on my reading at all, after a while because I was sweating hard. Chinese male, level 5, writing class An iWeb search for: because * _VBD _VVG 1 BECAUSE I WAS TRYING 1574 2 BECAUSE I …

because + past continuous Read More »