VVG

can’t bear + to-infinitive

In the English Vocabulary Profile at B2, ‘bear’ is defined: accept someone or something unpleasant For example: I can’t bear to see him like this. listen *There are other uses of ‘bear’ that are more advanced.  However, the sense defined above has a distinct grammar pattern: (CAN | COULD) (often negative) + bear + (to-infinitive | Verb-ing | noun phrase) Verb-ing …

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past continuous affirmative

Here’s an expert example of past continuous affirmative: I was trying to get you back. Listen to the pronunciation of this verb phrase. Here are two English Grammar Profile points in the category of PAST: A2 point 10 past continuous: actions and states in progress around a particular time in the past. A2 point 16 past continuous: show that an event …

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‘You know the person making them’ (reduced verbING clause)

Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined: “reduced” defining (restrictive) relative clauses with verb +-ing. This point will overlap: verb of senses + object + verbing This is difficult grammar to find in corpora since many other structures get caught.  We have done a search with a full stop to narrow out questions.  Our search string …

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IT NEEDS REPLACING. (‘need’ + gerund)

Although gerunds are covered in a few different ways across a few CEFR levels in the English Grammar Profile, there is no entry given to the use of a gerund after ‘need’ as MODALITY which is listed by PEARSON: GSE 63 B2 ‘need’ with verbs in the gerund to express necessity. ‘need’ + Verb Phrase …

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NOT ONLY + present perfect continuous (inversion) + BUT

Adverb expressions such as ‘not only’, ‘not just’, and ‘not simply’ emphasize that something is true, but it is not the whole truth.  These co-ordinate clauses. C2 point 92 in the category of PAST is defined: present perfect continuous, invert the subject and affirmative auxiliary verb with ‘not only … but’ as a focusing device …

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will not be VERBing

Point 32 in the category of FUTURE is defined: future continuous NEGATIVE WITH ‘WILL’ (won’t) An iWeb search for: wo|will _X be _VVG 1 WO N’T BE GETTING 2959 2 WO N’T BE GOING 2821 3 WO N’T BE USING 2817 4 WILL NOT BE USING 2040 5 WO N’T BE MAKING 1550 6 WILL …

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‘Not sure if it is.’ (NOT + non-finite or ellipted clause)

Let’s look at the most common examples of non-finite or ellipted claused used after ‘not’. Usually, we would say: I am not sure if it is possible. But we can remove the subject and verb to make an ellipted clause: Not sure if it is possible. We can also say: This is a petrol car …

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past continuous question

Point 28 in the category of PAST: past continuous B1 question form An iWeb search for: was|were _P _VVG *not all these will lead to questions. 1 WERE YOU THINKING 2389 EXPERT EXAMPLE: What were you thinking? stuff.co.nz 2 WAS I GOING 2198 3 WERE THEY THINKING 1716 4 WERE YOU USING 1218 5 WERE YOU LOOKING 951 …

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present perfect continuous question

Point 31 in the category of PAST: present perfect continuous: QUESTIONS with a limited range of verbs. PELIC STUDENT: What have you been doing? Arabic male, Level 4 grammar class. An iWeb search for: have|has _P been _VVG 1 HAVE YOU BEEN WORKING 1224 2 HAVE YOU BEEN LOOKING 1218 3 HAVE YOU BEEN USING 914 4 HAVE YOU …

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because + past continuous

Point 37 in the category of PAST/continuous  is defined: give a reason for something, often with ‘because’ PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I could not focus on my reading at all, after a while because I was sweating hard. Chinese male, level 5, writing class An iWeb search for: because * _VBD _VVG 1 BECAUSE I WAS TRYING 1574 2 BECAUSE I WAS GOING 1560 3 BECAUSE I …

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past continuous negative

Point 39 in the category of PAST is past continuous NEGATIVE TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST: (discussing saving money as a child) I was saving. I was not eating chocolates. I was just spending my money on my studies. male India B1 An iWeb search: _VBD _XX _VVG 1 WAS N’T GOING 29202 2 WAS NOT GOING 16267 3 WERE NOT GOING 12242 4 WAS N’T WORKING 8222 …

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had been + VERBing

Point 27 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous: an action or event which began before a point in the past and was still continuing up to that point, often with ‘for’ or ‘since’, to give background information. Point 32 in the PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous: background action …

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look forward to

Point 13 in the category of VERBS/phrasal-prepositional is defined as: ‘look forward to’ as a fixed expression followed by an ‘-ing’ form or noun phrase, usually at the end of correspondence. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I am looking forward to getting your letter. Japanese female, level 3 writing class. A search in iWeb for: LOOK forward to * * 1 LOOK …

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comparative adjective + THAN + verb-ING

The English Grammar Profile B1 Point 84 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: ‘than’ + a limited range of non-finite clauses (with -ing), forming the second part of a comparison after a comparative adjective This point partially overlaps PEARSON’S: GSE 62 B2 complex comparisons between verb/noun phrases VERB PHRASE 1/NOUN PHRASE 1 + …

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love | hate | prefer + VERBing | to INFINITVE

Point 19 VERBS/patterns is defined as: verbs expressing preference followed either by a ‘to’-infinitive or an ‘-ing’ form, with no change in meaning. *Much of this grammar overlaps A2 Modality, for example, “I would love to share with you.”   A search in iWeb for LOVE _VVG 1 LOVE SEEING 14175 2 LOVE USING 13703 3 LOVE WORKING …

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before | after + VERBing

B1 Point 61 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘before’ and ‘after’ + ‘-ing’, before or after a main clause, to refer to time. For example: After studying English, I go to my apartment. PELIC STUDENT: Arabic, Male, Level 3 A search in the iWeb corpus for: before|after _VVG 1 AFTER READING …

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