trying

determination

In the English Vocabulary Profile, the noun ‘determination’ is listed at B2 with the meaning: when someone continues trying to do something, although it is very difficult For example: Fretting arises from our determination to have our own way. listen ‘determination’ is often followed by an infinitive. A search in iWeb corpus for: determination TO _VVI 1 DETERMINATION TO MAKE 1407 2 DETERMINATION TO …

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GO + verbING

Listed at A2 in the English Vocabulary Profile: go + verb-ing to go somewhere to do a particular activity For example: If you guys aren’t doing anything, we‘re all gonna go surfing. listen An iWeb search for: GO _VVG 1 GO SHOPPING 15263 ‘GO SHOPPING’ is listed at A1. Yeah, that‘s a good idea, because I was gonna go shopping for a wheelchair anyway. 2 WENT MISSING 12104 ‘GO MSSING’ is not an activity, …

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TO infinitive

Let’s look at the most frequent ‘to infinitives’ on the internet in the top 100 verbs.  Our research is by doing a search in iWeb for _TO _VVI At A2, ‘keep’ stands out. We have put in bold the most frequent collocations too: I’m trying hard to keep my family out of my life. Cat Run At B1, ‘create’ is the most frequent. The …

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past continuous affirmative

Here’s an expert example of past continuous affirmative: I was trying to get you back. Listen to the pronunciation of this verb phrase. Here are two English Grammar Profile points in the category of PAST: A2 point 10 past continuous: actions and states in progress around a particular time in the past. A2 point 16 past continuous: show that an event …

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BE | HAVE | DO (auxiliary verbs)

Here is another group of A2 English Grammar Profile points that overlap multiple categories.  Many of these could be all merged into one point. Point 3 in the category of QUESTIONS: yes/no AUXILIARY ‘BE’ + subject + the continuous A search in NOW corpus for: _VB _P _VVG 1 ARE YOU GOING 38887 2 ARE …

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will not be VERBing

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 32 in the category of FUTURE is defined: future continuous NEGATIVE WITH ‘WILL’ (won’t) An iWeb search for: wo|will _X be _VVG 1 GETTING 2959 2 GOING 2821 3 USING 2817 4 USING 2040 5 MAKING 1550 6 WILL NOT BE RETURNING 1537 Mamamia Kim Cattrall will not be returning as Samantha. …

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‘Not sure if it is.’ (NOT + non-finite or ellipted clause)

Let’s look at the most common examples of non-finite or ellipted claused used after ‘not’. Usually, we would say: I am not sure if it is possible. But we can remove the subject and verb to make an ellipted clause: Not sure if it is possible. We can also say: This is a petrol car …

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past continuous question

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 28 in the category of PAST is defined: past continuous question form Here’s an iWeb search for: was|were _P _VVG *not all these will lead to questions. 1 WERE YOU THINKING 2389 EXPERT EXAMPLE: What were you thinking? stuff.co.nz 2 WAS I GOING 2198 3 WERE THEY THINKING 1716 4 WERE YOU …

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present perfect continuous questions

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 31 in the category of PAST is defined: present perfect continuous: QUESTIONS with a limited range of verbs. Note that questions are generally low frequency in the CLC probably due to lack of spoken data. *Also note that there are no other entries for ‘range of verbs’ PELIC …

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because + past continuous

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 37 in the category of PAST/continuous  is defined: give a reason for something, often with ‘because’ PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I could not focus on my reading at all, after a while because I was sweating hard. Chinese male, level 5, writing class An iWeb search for: because * _VBD _VVG 1 BECAUSE I WAS TRYING 1574 2 BECAUSE I …

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past continuous negative

Point 39 in the category of PAST is past continuous NEGATIVE TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST: (discussing saving money as a child) I was saving. I was not eating chocolates. I was just spending my money on my studies. male India B1 An iWeb search: _VBD _XX _VVG 1 WAS N’T GOING 29202 2 WAS NOT GOING 16267 3 WERE NOT GOING 12242 4 WAS N’T WORKING 8222 …

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had been + VERBing

Point 27 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous: an action or event which began before a point in the past and was still continuing up to that point, often with ‘for’ or ‘since’, to give background information. Point 32 in the PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous: background action …

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look forward to

Point 13 in the category of VERBS/phrasal-prepositional is defined as: ‘look forward to’ as a fixed expression followed by an ‘-ing’ form or noun phrase, usually at the end of correspondence. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I am looking forward to getting your letter. Japanese female, level 3 writing class. A search in iWeb for: LOOK forward to * * 1 LOOK …

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which one

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 44 in the category of PRONOUNS/substitution is defined as: ‘one’ after ‘which’ in indirect questions to refer to one of two or more options. For example: If I were to show you these two urban scenes, and I were to ask you which one is more beautiful, which one would you say? TED *not all the examples are ‘indirect questions’ in the EGP examples. A search in iWeb for: which one …

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comparative adjective + THAN + verb-ING

The English Grammar Profile B1 Point 84 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: ‘than’ + a limited range of non-finite clauses (with -ing), forming the second part of a comparison after a comparative adjective This point partially overlaps PEARSON’S: GSE 62 B2 complex comparisons between verb/noun phrases VERB PHRASE 1/NOUN PHRASE 1 + …

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before | after + VERBing

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 61 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘before’ and ‘after’ + ‘-ing’, before or after a main clause, to refer to time. Another way to say this is: ‘after + gerund’ or ‘before + gerund’ Also, note that this point will clash with …

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as if + NON-FINITE CLAUSE

‘As if’ means ‘as would be the case if’. Here’s an example of the subordinators as if +  Verb-ing clause. She studied the bracelet as if trying to estimate its fair market value. Listen ‘trying to estimate…’ is a manner clause, it describes how she studied. We could ask the question, How did she study it?   C2 point 133 CLAUSES/comparatives is defined as: ‘as if’ + …

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Verb + VerbING

Point 29 in the category of verbs/patterns is B1 and defined as: limited range of verbs followed by an ‘-ing’ form. Point 56 in Verbs/patterns is B2 and defined as an increasing range of verbs followed by an ‘-ing’ form. A search for _VV _VVG in iWeb corpus: 1 KEEP GOING 656012 STARTED USING 54040 …

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sense verb + OBJECT + VERB-ing

B2 point 54 in VERBS/patterns is defined as: some verbs connected with the senses + direct object + an ‘-ing’ form, to give emphasis to an ongoing activity. *I don’t believe B2 complexity should hinge on ‘activity’.  It should also include a state.  For example: I don’t see myself being with anyone else but you, Sarah. listen An iWeb search for: sense verbs …

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