Linking adverbs, also known as conjunctive adverbs, are used to connect ideas between two independent clauses or sentences. They help to show the relationship between these ideas. Here’s how the adverbs ‘also’, ‘however’ and the conjunction ‘so’ function in this capacity:
Also: This adverb is used to add information or express agreement with the previous clause. It indicates that the information in the new sentence is in addition to what has already been mentioned.
A: My name is Annie Wilkes.
B: My number one fan.
A: Yes. That’s right. I’m also a nurse.
The word “also” is used as a linking adverb to add information to the previous statement. Here, Annie Wilkes is confirming that she is indeed the number one fan (as stated by person B), and she is adding that she has another role or identity, which is being a nurse. So, “also” is used to express that she is not only a fan but a nurse as well. It helps to connect these two pieces of information about her identity.
So: is used to show cause and effect, or a conclusion based on the previous clause. It indicates that the information in the new sentence is a result or consequence of what has been mentioned before. Note, that a key word here is “decided” because “so” is considered a subordinating conjunction before the result or decision clause.
- Example: “It was raining heavily. So, we decided to stay indoors.”
When “so” is used in a way similar to a linking adverb, it’s often preceded by a comma or semicolon and followed by a comma. This punctuation helps signal that “so” is connecting two independent clauses: “She didn’t study; so, she failed the test.”
“So” can express a consequence, similar to “therefore” or “hence”, or it can introduce an additional action.
However: This adverb is used to introduce a contrast or contradiction to the previous clause. It indicates that the information in the new sentence is different from or contrasts with what has been mentioned.
- Example: “I love reading books. However, I don’t enjoy reading science fiction.”
Remember, when using linking adverbs, they are usually followed by a comma and can be placed at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence, depending on the desired emphasis.
In the English Grammar Profile, A2 point 19 in the category of ADVERBS is defined as:
limited range of adverbs (‘also’, ‘so‘, ‘however’) to show a relationship between two clauses or sentences.
The EGP examples are all past simple and found in a variety of positions:
I also_RR bought
, so_CS I decided (‘so’ is tagged as a subordinating conjunction by claws7)
However_RR , the clothes were cheap.
The English Grammar Profile probably includes “so” in the category of linking adverbs because it can function to show a relationship between two clauses or sentences, similar to how linking adverbs like “also” and “however” work.
In the EGP example “I don’t like green, so I decided to use blue”, “so” is showing a cause-effect relationship between the two independent clauses. The first clause “I don’t like green” is the cause, and the second clause “I decided to use blue” is the effect. This is a type of relationship that can be expressed using linking adverbs.
However, it’s important to note that traditional grammar classifications typically categorize “so” as a coordinating conjunction in this context. The English Grammar Profile’s categorization probably reflects a functional approach to grammar, focusing on how words are used in context rather than strictly adhering to traditional parts of speech.
Also, note the English Grammar Profile point at A2 DISCOURSE MARKERS:
‘so‘ to summarise, usually in informal contexts
Here is some longer discourse to help demonstrate how “so” is used as a discourse marker to summarize in an informal context:
- “We decided to take a day trip to the beach. We packed our bags with snacks, sunscreen, and towels. We played beach volleyball, built sandcastles, and even went for a swim. So, to put it simply, we had a great time at the beach today!”
- “My grandma has a special recipe for apple pie that she’s been making for years. It starts with peeling and slicing fresh apples. Then you mix them with sugar, cinnamon, and a bit of lemon juice. This mixture goes into a homemade pie crust and is baked until golden brown. So, in a nutshell, that’s how you make my grandma’s famous apple pie.”
In these examples, “so” is used to signal that a summary or conclusion is about to be given. It helps guide the listener or reader through the conversation or text. It’s not modifying the sentences in the way a sentence adverb typically would either. Instead, it’s signaling a transition or connection between ideas.
Emphasis: When used with summarizing phrases like “in a nutshell” or “to put it simply”, “so” can add emphasis. It underscores that a summary or simplification of previous information is coming up.
Engagement: Using “so” in this way can make the language feel more conversational and engaging. It can give the impression of a casual, friendly discussion, even if the topic is serious or complex.
This point partially overlaps point 11 in B1 CONJUNCTIONS/subordinating which is defined as:
an increasing range of simple subordinating conjunctions (‘as, after, before since, until, although, whether, so (that), though’) to introduce a subordinate clause.
One iWeb search is:
* also|so|however * *
1 . HOWEVER, THE 358765
PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE:
The living expenses in the US are lower than that of Japan.
Japanese, Male, level 4, grammar class
2 , SO YOU CAN 187959
In the sentence above, the word “so” is a conjunction. It is used to introduce a clause that indicates the purpose or aim of the action mentioned in the previous clause. In this context, “so” is connecting the action “You need me to marry you” with its purpose “you can get your green card”. The meaning of “so” here is similar to “in order that” or “with the aim that”.
In that way,
you will know your mistakes,
so you can avoid them in the future.
Arabic, Female, level 4, writing class
3 . HOWEVER, IF 178708
4 . HOWEVER, IT 175566
5 AND SO ON. 162456
6 . HOWEVER , I 143828
7 , SO IT’S 140868
In the sentence “So it ‘s a good thing you ‘re here.”, “so” is used as a conjunction. It introduces a clause that expresses a result or consequence. In this context, “so” is connecting an implied or understood situation with its positive outcome, which is the person’s presence being a good thing. The meaning of “so” here is similar to “therefore” or “as a result”.
8 . HOWEVER, THERE 107021
9 , SO IF YOU 107006 conjunction
10 , HOWEVER, IS 101651
11 , HOWEVER, THE 100890
12 . HOWEVER, THIS 98814
13 . SO IF YOU 96228 conjunction
14 , ALSO KNOWN AS 93681
Here ‘also’ is found between noun phrases and past participle:
The Moon Festival, also known as Mid-Autumn Festival,
is one of the traditional celebrations in Chinese culture.
Chinese, Male, level 4, writing class
*This example does not show a relationship between two clauses or sentences, but the complexity is clearly there.
15 , HOWEVER, THAT 93076
16 HOWEVER, THE 92318
17 CAN ALSO BE USED 91338
18 YOU SO MUCH FOR 90636
19 , SO IT IS 86591
20 . ALSO, THE 83729
21 . HOWEVER, IN 79205
22 . HOWEVER, YOU 78702
23 . SO, I 69902
24 , SO I’M 69722
25 . HOWEVER, WE 62695
26 DO SO. 60030
27 , SO THAT THE 59479
28 . HOWEVER, WHEN 57460
29 . SO, IF 55964
30 THANKS SO MUCH FOR 54182
31 . HOWEVER, THEY 53331
32 . ALSO, I 51474
33 . HOWEVER, A 51117
34 , SO I DO 50214
35 . HOWEVER, AS 49313
36 (ALSO KNOWN AS 49172
37 , SO THAT YOU 48045
38 , HOWEVER, IT 43779
39 , SO IT WAS 42201
40 . SO FAR, 41525
41 , SO DON’T 40823
42 , SO MAKE SURE 40307
43 . SO IT’S 39718
44 . ALSO, IF 38535
We‘ve got to do everything we can to push our governments and companies to do a better job of protecting their rights.
We‘ve also got to be more mindful about how our own personal, political, consumer and business choices affect people like these around the world.
Also, if you follow the news, it ‘s pretty clear that that alone isn’t going to be enough.
45 HOWEVER, IF 38474
46 , SO I WAS 37503
47 , SO THERE IS 37393
48 AND SO FORTH. 36975
49 , HOWEVER, AND 36879
The 5 most common collocates of ‘also’ in the MOVIE corpus:
1 KNOWN 477
2 AWARE 76
3 MENTIONED 45
4 PROVIDE 40
5 HELPS 37
The 10 most common collocates of ‘however’:
1 MAY 207 modality
2 HOWEVER 106
3 TAKES 64
4 SMALL 40
5 SEEM 38
6 CERTAIN 29
7 REMAINS 26
8 MANAGE 24
9 AGREE 23
10 REMAIN 21
A search on iWeb for
* as|after|before|since|until|although|whether|though * _V
1 AS YOU CAN 81431
*most examples are ‘as much as you can’
Cajun cuisine is a special kind of food of the United States,
because they combine French, Spanish, African and Native American food
in a unique way.
Spanish, Female, level 5, writing class
*This is C1 modality!
2 , AS IT IS 72937
I think that an appropriate age to drive a car is 18 years old,
Italian, Female, level 3, writing class
3 . AS YOU CAN 56661
4 FAR AS I KNOW 43961
5 . WHETHER YOU’RE 43664
6 . WHETHER YOU ARE 41935
7 , AS THEY ARE 39516
8 , WHETHER IT’S 38300
9 WHETHER YOU’RE 36917
10 , AS YOU CAN 35971
11 , THOUGH, IS 35516
between Hukydo and Indian Garden,
though, is the price difference.
Arabic, Male, level 5, writing class
12 FAR AS I CAN 34481
13 . WHETHER IT ‘S 32555
14 WHETHER YOU ARE 31517
15 , AS IT WAS 29194
16 , WHETHER IT BE 27507
17 , AS I HAVE 27336
18 LONG AS YOU HAVE 24177
19 EVEN THOUGH IT IS 23812
20 , ALTHOUGH IT IS 23647
Arabic, Female, level 5, writing class
*’although’ is B1 in EVP
21 MUCH AS YOU CAN 23300
22 , WHETHER IT IS 23228
23 , AS IT ‘S 22390
24 , SINCE IT IS 21579
The second reason why smoking is a bad habit is
the fact that it wastes money,
Arabic Male, level 4 ,writing class.
*Note that “since’ is B1 in the EVP and EGP, but point 72 GSE is B2+ ‘since …’ to talk about reasons, causes and explanations.
25 LONG AS YOU DO 21409
26 LONG AS IT IS 21341
27 , AS WE HAVE 21212
28 . AS I SAID 21193
29 LONG AS THEY ARE 21175
30 LONG AS YOU ARE 21017
31 EVEN THOUGH IT WAS 20566
32 EVEN THOUGH IT’S 20006
33 . ALTHOUGH IT IS 18348
34 , AS THERE ARE 17562
35 AS I SAID 17490
36 , AS IT HAS 16935
37 , AS THERE IS 16648
38 , THOUGH IT IS 16619
39 , AS THIS IS 16584
40 EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE 16473
41 AFTER YOU HAVE 16201
The next step,
Chinese, Male, level 4, writing class
*between the rankings 42 – 100 there are none of the other conjunctions so we will focus on finding the remaining:
A search on iWeb for
* before|until * _V
1 BEFORE YOU START 8417
Chinese, Male, level 3, writing class
2 BEFORE YOU CAN 7743
3 BEFORE WE GET 7672
4 AND BEFORE YOU KNOW 6235
5 BEFORE YOU BEGIN 4626
6 . BEFORE YOU KNOW 4334
7 . BEFORE YOU START 4123
8 . BEFORE YOU CAN 3465
9 BEFORE YOU GO 3204
10 BEFORE YOU GET 3191
11 TRY BEFORE YOU BUY 3091
12 BEFORE I GET 3036
13 WAIT UNTIL YOU SEE 2572 (this is C1 in the EVP)