NN

defining relative clause TO infinitive

Here’s an expert example of a defining relative clause using TO-infinitive: Several years earlier, she‘d become the first woman to ski to the South Pole. Listen to the sentence. The first woman to ski can be written in another way with the same meaning: the first woman who skied  Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined:  construct defining (restrictive) relative clauses with ‘to’ + infinitive verb …

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‘You know the person making them’ (reduced verbING clause)

Pearson’s GSE 56 B1+ is defined: “reduced” defining (restrictive) relative clauses with verb +-ing. This point will overlap: verb of senses + object + verbing This is difficult grammar to find in corpora since many other structures get caught.  We have done a search with a full stop to narrow out questions.  Our search string …

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Academic IELTS grammar for task 1

I’m often asked by my students just before they take an IELTS test for some quick tips on what to study before a particular task.  Therefore, in this post, I will summarise the salient grammar and vocabulary features I found in very good introductions and overviews in the Academic IELTS  Task 1 tests using our …

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if + necessary | any | anything | in doubt (subject and verb ellipsis)

Here are EXPERT EXAMPLES of subject and verb ellipsis after ‘if’: When you speak your character’s words, you can hear whether they sound natural, and fix them if necessary. TED *If necessary = if it is necessary. Unlike the billions of people who have few options, if any, due to war, poverty or illness, you have plentiful opportunities to live decisively. TED *if any = if there are any.     Planet Radio If in doubt, don’t drive. *if in doubt = in you are in doubt. GSE 66 B2 omit …

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THAT + adjective + noun + OF + possessive pronoun

Point 115 in PRONOUNS: ‘THAT … OF’ + possessive pronouns to express an attitude about someone or something, often in humorous or sarcastic contexts. *there are other very similar C2 points to this too. iWeb doesn’t allow more than 5 tokens in a search so a COCA search for: that _JJ _NN _IO _PPGE 1 …

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determiner + OF + noun

Point 29 in DETERMINERS is defined: quantifying determiners + possessive determiners + ‘of’ + noun. noun phrases PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: In fact, some of my habits are changed by my mood. Arabic male level 3 writing class. An iWeb search for: _D of _AP _NN 1 MOST OF MY LIFE 9494 2 MOST OF YOUR TIME 8510 3 MOST OF THEIR TIME …

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not + any | many | much + NOUN

When grammar points are from the same CEFR level, and in the same category, we believe it is more useful to have a single post that covers them.  Both these A2 points come from the category of DETERMINERS/quantity. Point 15: ‘many’ with plural nouns in negative contexts. Point 23: ‘much’ with uncountable nouns in negative …

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There ‘BE’ a lot of + NOUN

Point 15 in the category of VERBS is defined: ‘there is’ and ‘there are’ + ‘a lot of’ + plural noun iWeb doesn’t allow for longer than 5 token searches: _EX _VB a lot of 1 THERE ARE A LOT OF 145235 2 THERE IS A LOT OF 69785 3 THERE ‘S A LOT OF …

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What a + NOUN PHRASE

Point 38 in the category of CLAUSES/exclamations: ‘What a’ + noun phrase and ‘What a’ + noun phrase + clause PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: What a trip it was. Japanese female level 5 grammar class. An iWeb search for: . What a * * 1 . WHAT A GREAT WAY 1759 2 . WHAT A WASTE OF 1402 3 …

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WHO (subject – relative clause)

Point 34 in CLAUSES is defined: a defining relative clause with ‘who’ as the subject PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: In addition, the people who lived in Korea 100 years ago didn’t have enough transportation. Arabic male level 5 writing class. An iWeb search for: _NN who_P _VV 1 PEOPLE WHO WANT 42175 2 PEOPLE WHO LIVE 26622 3 PEOPLE WHO WORK 20667 4 PEOPLE WHO USE 18728 …

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WHICH (relative clause)

Point 23 in the category of CLAUSES is defined: non-defining relative clause with ‘which’ as the subject Point 12 is the same but: defining relative clause with ‘which’ as the subject. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: She is coming out from the KITSON which is located in LA and is a department store. Korean male level 3 writing class. An iWeb search for: _N which _VV 1 WHICH BRINGS 9614 2 …

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BE like

Point 19 in CLAUSES/comparatives is defined: ‘be’ + ‘like’ + noun or pronoun FOR EXAMPLE: How many people are like you? Are like me? A search in iWeb for: _VB like_II _P 1 ARE LIKE ME 7752 2 ‘RE LIKE ME 7377 3 ‘S LIKE YOU 4506 4 BE LIKE HIM 2401 5 BE LIKE YOU 2118 6 BE LIKE ME …

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MAIN | ONLY + noun

Point 24 in ADJECTIVES/position: a limited range of adjectives (‘main’, ‘only’) that limit the noun that they go before. An iWeb search for: main|only _NN 1 ONLY THING 275654 2 ONLY WAY 275017 3 ONLY NEED 78976 4 ONLY TIME 72450 5 MAIN STREET 71594 6 ONLY REASON 70637 TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST: It was my favourite cake and that’s the only reason I used to go to school every day. …

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superlative + noun+ IN

Point 11 in the category of ADJECTIVES: prepositional phrases with ‘in’ + singular name of a place after a superlative adjective. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I am not shy with girls, I always tell my brother don’t be shy with them,  they are the best creatures in the world. Arabic male level 2 writing class. A search in iWeb for: _JJT _NN in _N 1 BEST THINGS IN LIFE 1698 2 BEST …

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superlative + noun + OF

Point 7 in the category of ADJECTIVES: limited range of prepositional phrases with ‘of’ after a superlative adjective, to refer to one thing within a set or part of a set. TLC SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: What’s the best type of music? male Mexico B1 A search in iWeb for: _JJT _NN of * * 1 BEST INTERESTS …

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can be

Point 98 in the category of modality is defined: GENERAL TRUTHS AND TENDENCIES: ‘can be’ TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: Their students can get good grades and their income can be higher. male China B1 We follow the EGP example patterns in iWeb: _NN can_VM be _R _J 1 RATES CAN BE AS HIGH 102 2 RATE CAN BE AS HIGH 92 3 INFORMATION CAN …

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determiner + superlative + noun (range)

B1 Point 48 in the category of ADJECTIVES is defined: noun phrases with a range of determiners before a superlative adjective. *This should include a range of nouns because at A2 it is a limited range.  One can guess that ‘my’ ‘your’ can still be B1 if the noun is not A1. We have removed …

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