and | but | or | because

A1 points 1-7 in the English Grammar Profile are listed as: single word conjunctions (‘and, but, or’): to connect single nouns and adjectives. to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences. ‘and’ and ‘or’ before the final item in a list. ‘but’ to add unexpected contrast. ‘because’ as a subordinating conjunction to introduce a subordinate clause. An …

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conjunction + past simple

In the English Grammar Profile, there are two points that overlap.  B2 point 55 is defined as: PAST simple after ‘if’ as a politeness structure, especially in letters and emails. B2 point 72 is defined as: the past simple with a range of subordinating conjunctions, including ‘as soon as’, ‘before’, ‘if’, ‘once’, ‘since’, ‘so’, ‘until’, …

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1 BEFORE (II) 3240842 3 BEFORE (CS) 2449322 4 BEFORE (RT) 1195294 As a time adverb it is usually followed by punctuation such as a fulltop to end the sentence. 1 EVER (RR) BEFORE (RT) . (.) 46488 2 THAN (CSN) BEFORE (RT) . (.) 25451 3 SEEN (VVN) BEFORE (RT) . (.) 21220 4 …

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What part of speech is LIKE?

Like is usually a preposition, verb or conjunction. A search in the iWeb and NOW corpora for ‘like’: preposition 1 LIKE (II) 12859907 1  I WAS LIKE, ‘ 43416 When Matthew told me that was yours, I was like, “I walk by there all the time.” listen 2 IT LOOKS LIKE THE EMAIL 36854 3  I ‘M LIKE , ‘ 16067 4  I WAS LIKE , ” 12239 …

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‘When’ is most often a subordinating conjunction in the iWeb corpus. WHEN (CS) 8290974 (A2 conjunction) collocates in the movie corpus: 1 CAME 7116 She came by the hotel when I was leaving and she gave me this for you. The Shunning 2 COMES 6367 3 SAW 3620 4 GETS 2919 5 STARTED 2636 The next most common use is as a question adverb. WHEN (RRQ) 2397700 collocates 1 REMEMBER …



‘Until’ is usually conjunction, but sometimes it functions as a preposition. 1 UNTIL (CS) 2251777 4 UNTIL (II) 358880 6 UNTIL (II22) 73389


Words like ‘once’ and ‘twice’ can be predeterminers as multipliers.  For example: “Once every two weeks”  “Twice a day” However, ‘once’ is very often a subordinating conjunction or general adverb. 1 ONCE (CS@_RR) 2000496 2 ONCE (RR) 1897790 3 ONCE (RR_CS@) 994010 4 ONCE (RR21) 550086 5 ONCE (RR22) 257464 6 ONCE (RR33) 55643 7 …

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1 ONLY (JJ) 15190271 2 ONLY (RR) 2915525 3 ONLY (RR_JJ) 250583 4 ONLY (JJ_RR) 63324 5 ONLY (RR_CS%) 5100

if | when | so | while + SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

Here are two example of the simple subordinating conjunction ‘if’ in a sentence: If you would like to see me again, then give me a call. listen I think it would be nice if you all dropped him a line. listen The only point for A2 CONJUNCTIONS is point 8, which is defined as: a limited range of simple subordinating conjunctions ‘(if, when, so, while)’ to introduce a subordinate clause. WHILE The conjunction ‘while’ …

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conditional subordinate clauses & range of complex conjunctions

A search on iWeb corpus for 3 part subordinating conjunctions reveals the following frequency: They point to another group of multiple overlapping points on the English Grammar Profile. B2 point 91 in CLAUSES & conditional is defined as: conditional subordinate clauses with a range of conjunctions ‘as long as’, ‘provided’  + present simple or present …

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In the English Vocabulary Profile, the pictured item “unless” has one level = B1.  However, in the English Grammar Profile: 18 CONJUNCTIONS subordinating B2 wide range of simple subordinating conjunctions (‘once, whereas, unless, except (that) provided (that)’), to introduce a subordinate clause. Getting to work by car is comfortable, and faster unless you are caught …

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