conjunction + past simple

In the English Grammar Profile, there are two points that overlap.  B2 point 55 is defined as: PAST simple after ‘if’ as a politeness structure, especially in letters and emails. B2 point 72 is defined as: the past simple with a range of subordinating conjunctions, including ‘as soon as’, ‘before’, ‘if’, ‘once’, ‘since’, ‘so’, ‘until’, …

conjunction + past simple Read More »


1 BEFORE (II) 3240842 3 BEFORE (CS) 2449322 4 BEFORE (RT) 1195294 As a time adverb it is usually followed by punctuation such as a fulltop to end the sentence. 1 EVER (RR) BEFORE (RT) . (.) 46488 2 THAN (CSN) BEFORE (RT) . (.) 25451 3 SEEN (VVN) BEFORE (RT) . (.) 21220 4 …

BEFORE Read More »


‘When’ is most often a subordinating conjunction in the iWeb corpus. WHEN (CS) 8290974 (A2 conjunction) collocates in the movie corpus: 1 CAME 7116 She came by the hotel when I was leaving and she gave me this for you. The Shunning 2 COMES 6367 3 SAW 3620 4 GETS 2919 5 STARTED 2636 The next most common use is as a question adverb. WHEN (RRQ) 2397700 collocates 1 REMEMBER …



‘Until’ is usually conjunction, but sometimes it functions as a preposition. 1 UNTIL (CS) 2251777 4 UNTIL (II) 358880 6 UNTIL (II22) 73389


Words like ‘once’ and ‘twice’ can be predeterminers as multipliers.  For example: “Once every two weeks”  “Twice a day” However, ‘once’ is very often a subordinating conjunction or general adverb. 1 ONCE (CS@_RR) 2000496 2 ONCE (RR) 1897790 3 ONCE (RR_CS@) 994010 4 ONCE (RR21) 550086 5 ONCE (RR22) 257464 6 ONCE (RR33) 55643 7 …

ONCE Read More »


1 ONLY (JJ) 15190271 2 ONLY (RR) 2915525 3 ONLY (RR_JJ) 250583 4 ONLY (JJ_RR) 63324 5 ONLY (RR_CS%) 5100


In this post, we investigate 11 ways ‘for’ is tagged by the claws 7 tag set.   1 FOR (IF) 140146366 preposition 1 . FOR MORE INFORMATION 77314 2 . FOR THOSE WHO 22531 3 THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL 19815 4 THE REASON FOR THIS IS 19424 5 . FOR ME , 18503 6 …

FOR Read More »

if | when | so | while + SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

Here are two example of the simple subordinating conjunction ‘if’ in a sentence: If you would like to see me again, then give me a call. listen I think it would be nice if you all dropped him a line. listen The only point for A2 CONJUNCTIONS is point 8, which is defined as: a limited range of simple subordinating conjunctions ‘(if, when, so, while)’ to introduce a subordinate clause. WHILE The conjunction ‘while’ …

if | when | so | while + SUBORDINATE CLAUSE Read More »

conditional subordinate clauses & range of complex conjunctions

A search on iWeb corpus for 3 part subordinating conjunctions reveals the following frequency: They point to another group of multiple overlapping points on the English Grammar Profile. B2 point 91 in CLAUSES & conditional is defined as: conditional subordinate clauses with a range of conjunctions ‘as long as’, ‘provided’  + present simple or present …

conditional subordinate clauses & range of complex conjunctions Read More »


In the English Vocabulary Profile, the pictured item “unless” has one level = B1.  However, in the English Grammar Profile: 18 CONJUNCTIONS subordinating B2 wide range of simple subordinating conjunctions (‘once, whereas, unless, except (that) provided (that)’), to introduce a subordinate clause. Getting to work by car is comfortable, and faster unless you are caught …

unless Read More »