**PHYSICS**

**Physical World and Measurement :**

Physics – scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; physics, technology and society. Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; Sl units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement, significant figures. Dimensions of phycical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

** ****Kinematics :**

Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line :Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velociy. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time position-time graphs, reations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). Elementary concepts of differentation and integration fro describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: position and displacement vectorsgeneral vectors and notation equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number, addition and subtraction of vectros. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in plane-rectangular components. motion in a plane. Cases of uniform circular motion.

** ****Laws of Motion :**

Intuitive conept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

**Work, Energy and Power :**

Scalar product of vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.** **

**Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body **:

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conversation and center of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. Vector product of vectors; moment of force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects (on derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications

** ****Gravitation :**

Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.

**Properties of Bulk Matter :**

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity of fiuid pressure. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

**Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory **:

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases-assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules, degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of gases; concept of mean free path. Avogadro’s number.

**Oscil llations and Waves **:

Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacements as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase, oscillations of a springrestoring force and force constant, energy in S.H.M -kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance. Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect. Unit I: Electrostatics Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges, equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.

**Current Electricity :**

Electric curren, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current, Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Cardon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors, series and parallel combinations of resistors, temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metttre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potenatial difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

**Magnetic Effects of current and Magnetism :**

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular oop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a oving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a niform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced y a current loog in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loog as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Mangetic dipole oment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an quivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-dia-and ferromagnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their stengths. Permanent magnets.

**Electromagnetic and Alternating Currents**

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Need for displacement current. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

**Optics**

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection an its applications,

optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula Magnification, power

of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of ight – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and stigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction usingHuygens’ principle. Interference, young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustanined interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

**Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation :**

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observationsl; Einstein’s photoelectric quationparticle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson- Germer experiment.

**Atoms & Nuclei :**

Alpha-pariticle scattering experiment, Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isptones. Radioactivity alpha, beta and gamme

particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per

nucleon and its variation with mass number nuclear fission and fusion.

**Electronic Devices :**

Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I – V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a

rectifier; I – V characteristics of LED, pho odiode, solar cell, and zener diode; zener diode as a voltage regulator

Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter

configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND, and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

**Communication Systems :**

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic

waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitued-modulated wave.