actually | unfortunately | of course | I’m sorry

Point 34 in ADVERBS/modifiers:

STANCE: limited range (‘actually’, ‘unfortunately’, ‘of course’, ‘I’m sorry’) to indicate an attitude or viewpoint.

‘actually’ is A2 or higher in the English Vocabulary Profile regardless if it is ‘stance’ or not.

‘of course’ is A1 in the EVP if used to say ‘yes’ and emphasize your answer:

Dictionary example:
“Can you help me?” “Of course!”
Cambridge Learner Corpus Learner example:
Yes of course I can come.

And B1 if used to show that what you are saying is obvious or already known:

Dictionary example:
Of course, the Olympics are not just about money.
Cambridge Learner Corpus Learner example:
Of course, I met many new people.

Because there is so much clashing information about the levels, we won’t bother expanding this point in iWeb.


TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE:

I’m sorry I’m nervous.

female Mexico B1

 

I’m sorry I don’t understand you well.

male Spain B1

* The grammar is sometimes hidden under other grammar points.  Also, there is a difference in meaning if the two clauses are separate expressions that may be better expressed with a comma between them.


EXPERT EXAMPLES:

Unfortunately, North Carolina’s Common Core curriculum has failed astronomically at teaching us one of the most crucial skills of all: communicating.

technicianonline.com

 

 

Students will not see the value in grammar unless we actually show them how it‘s applied.

edweek.org