**‘must’ followed by a wide range of ‘modal adverbs’ + infinitive.****must surely know**.

Modality expresses something about the attitude of the ‘speaker’. Here are some modal adverbs that students can use.

B1 Modal Adverbs:

definitely, fortunately, **indeed**, likely, obviously, totally

B2 Modal Adverbs:

apparently, essentially, evidently, literally, necessarily, positively, presumably, strictly, **surely**, truly, undoubtedly

C1 Modal Adverbs:

all things considered, inevitably, noticeably, seemingly, technically, unnecessarily, unquestionably

C2 Modal adverbs:

allegedly, reportedly, scarcely, unavoidably, undeniably

In the English Grammar Profile, point 229 in the category of MODALITY at **C2**, is simply defined:

‘must’ with a

wide range of adverbs.

**The problem with this explanation is that it doesn’t say whether range must include ‘modal adverbs’ not just a wide range of adverbs with the modal auxiliary ‘must’.**

This we can try to guess from the examples given:

**“certainly”**which is A2 in the EVP,**“clearly”**A2 or B1 depending on the sense and**“completely”**which is B1.

Here’s a long list of modal adverbs and modal adverb phrases. Black means they are unlisted in the English Vocabulary Profile.

Otherwise, we might assume safely that any B1 adverbs and higher found in the mid position would constitute a wide range…

A search in iWeb for:

**must_VM definitely|fortunately|indeed|likely|obviously|totally _V**

1 MUST INDEED BE 292

2 MUST OBVIOUSLY BE 263

3 MUST DEFINITELY BE 151

4 MUST INDEED HAVE 110

5 MUST OBVIOUSLY HAVE 52

6 MUST DEFINITELY TRY 29

7 MUST DEFINITELY HAVE 26

8 MUST INDEED COME 16

9 MUST TOTALLY REJECT 13

10 MUST INDEED TAKE 12

11 MUST INDEED GO 12

12 MUST DEFINITELY VISIT 11

*must_VM *apparently|essentially|evidently|literally|necessarily|

**positively|presumably|strictly|surely|truly|undoubtedly _V**

1 MUST SURELY BE 2483

2 MUST NECESSARILY BE 1800

3 MUST SURELY HAVE 837

4 MUST NECESSARILY HAVE 311

5 MUST TRULY BE 245

6 MUST SURELY KNOW 105

7 MUST STRICTLY ADHERE 97

8 MUST NECESSARILY FOLLOW 87

9 MUST SURELY RANK 83

10 MUST SURELY COME 72

11 MUST STRICTLY FOLLOW 68

12 MUST SURELY GO 62

13 MUST STRICTLY COMPLY 61

14 MUST UNDOUBTEDLY BE 60

15 MUST NECESSARILY INCLUDE 55

16 MUST NECESSARILY EXIST 50

17 MUST NECESSARILY TAKE 49

18 MUST EVIDENTLY BE 47

19 MUST NECESSARILY INVOLVE 44

20 MUST SURELY SEE 42

21 MUST TRULY BELIEVE 42

22 MUST TRULY UNDERSTAND 40

23 MUST NECESSARILY LEAD 39

24 MUST SURELY MAKE 37

25 MUST NECESSARILY REMAIN 37

26 MUST LITERALLY BE 37

27 MUST ESSENTIALLY BE 37

28 MUST NECESSARILY FAIL 36

29 MUST NECESSARILY COME 36

30 MUST TRULY HAVE 35

I will not even start on whether or not the verbs that are found with lower-level adverbs should also constitute range points. Also, note that “completely” is a very rare adverb to find naturally in this construction which begs the question of whether following given examples would constitute for good choices of what to teach students. Therefore, let’s look for some proof outside of the English Grammar Profile! Take a look at what occurs most frequently online in the iWeb corpus for `must _rr _v?i*`

:

On the right are adverbs that are A2 or lower. On the left are adverbs that are B1 or higher. There are no C2 adverbs in these top 100 Ngrams.

**1 MUST ALSO BE 43818 (B1)**

**2 MUST ALWAYS BE 14838**

3 MUST ALSO HAVE 9845

4 MUST STILL BE 6368

5 MUST NEVER BE 4123

**6 MUST THEREFORE BE 4103**

*further collocations:*

1 CONSIDERED (VVN ) 104

2 TAKEN (VVN ) 96

3 CAREFUL (JJ ) 42

4 UNDERSTOOD (VVN ) 37

5 REGARDED (VVN ) 35

*There were only two examples in ** Open Cambridge Learner Corpus (Uncoded)** and they both were @ C1 in :

- I
must thereforeadviseyou to correct your original advertisement and to make a more reliable one without further delay.- In addition, some new employees have not [got] a personal computer and
must therefore useother personal computers or wait until some are free.

**7 MUST SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETE 3550**

further collocates 4 left and right:

1 STUDENTS (NN2 ) 973

2 STUDENT (NN1 ) 314

3 COURSE (NN1 ) 234

4 COURSES (NN2 ) 217

5 PROGRAM (NN1 ) 179

6 CANDIDATES (NN2 ) 153

7 TRAINING (NN1 ) 147

8 LEAST (RR22 ) 141

9 MINIMUM (NN1 ) 137

10 APPLICANTS (NN2 ) 135

*none found in OCLCU

8 MUST ALSO PROVIDE 3132

9 MUST ALSO COMPLETE 2943

**10 MUST EITHER BE 2933**

*(This could be considered a conjunction)*

further collocates 4 to the left and right of “must either be”:

**1 APPLICANTS (NN2 ) 62**

2 CITIZEN (NN1 ) 49

3 RETURNED (VVN ) 26

4 APPLICANT (NN1 ) 24

**5 ELIGIBLE (JJ ) 24**

*2 examples in OCLCU.

C1 student: They

**must either****return**to society or leave it definitively, and either course means the end of the literature they guard.C2: To do that he

**must either****be**a robot or a phenomenon.

11 MUST ALSO INCLUDE 2742

**12 MUST SURELY BE 2486 (modal adverb)**

1 AWARE (JJ ) 19

2 ULTIMATE (JJ ) 13

3 CONTENDER (NN1 ) 10

4 WORST (JJT ) 10

5 REGARDED (VVN ) 9

*one example at C2:

Thus, it is only a widespread moralistic assumption of the culture I am part of (a mixture of catholic distrust of economic profit and love for the poor, regardless of their usual quality, and the vulgarized marxist idea according to which if one gets richer, the amount of wealth he has come into possession with

must surelyhave beenthe outcome of somebody else’s deprivation) that if there were fewer rich people poverty rates would be lower.

13 MUST ALSO TAKE 2483

14 MUST ALSO CONSIDER 2314

15 MUST ALSO SUBMIT 2281

16 MUST ALSO MEET 2040

**17 MUST NECESSARILY BE 1798**

1 TRUE (JJ ) 23

2 SUBJECT (II21 ) 19

3 CONSTITUTION (NN1 ) 15

4 PROPORTION (II32 ) 14

5 CARRIED (VVN ) 13

C2: For this reason Henry VIII needs desperately the balance provided by Thomas More, and for this same reason the two opposed attitudes

**must necessarily****and inevitably collide**.C1: The reason is quite simple: those who manage to influence people so that they are empowered to engage in creative work

**must necessarily****belong**to a separate sort of mankind.

18 MUST ALSO PAY 1764

19 MUST ALREADY BE 1652

20 MUST ALSO ENSURE 1575

21 MUST ALSO MAKE 1508

22 MUST NEVER FORGET 1502

23 MUST ALWAYS HAVE 1429

24 MUST ALREADY HAVE 1359

25 MUST ALSO PASS 1047

26 MUST ALWAYS REMEMBER 1034

27 MUST REALLY BE 997

28 MUST JUST BE 990

29 MUST ALSO REMEMBER 976

30 MUST ALSO COMPLY 918

31 MUST BOTH BE 904

32 MUST ALSO KEEP 901

33 MUST ALSO KNOW 863

34 MUST ALSO SHOW 850

35 MUST SURELY HAVE 839

36 MUST ALSO UNDERSTAND 833

37 MUST ALSO GIVE 791

38 MUST ALSO DEMONSTRATE 785

39 MUST EITHER HAVE 766

40 MUST ALSO USE 762

41 MUST ALWAYS KEEP 704

42 MUST SUCCESSFULLY PASS 668

43 MUST OFTEN BE 640

44 MUST STILL HAVE 640

**45 MUST CONSTANTLY BE 636**

*none

**46 MUST CERTAINLY BE 627 (our EGP given)**

C2: There

must certainlybeother solutions to the problem of need for space for new houses.

47 MUST ALSO LEARN 613

**48 MUST CURRENTLY BE 593**

*none

49 MUST ALSO GO 587

50 MUST ALSO SIGN 578

51 MUST ALSO CONTAIN 568

52 MUST ALSO LOOK 562

53 MUST ALSO FILE 560

54 MUST IMMEDIATELY NOTIFY 560

55 MUST ALSO MAINTAIN 555

**56 MUST CLEARLY STATE 546 (our EGP given)**

*none

57 MUST ALSO WORK 545

58 MUST ALSO APPLY 539

59 MUST ALSO SPECIFY 539

60 MUST ALSO OBTAIN 535

**61 MUST SATISFACTORILY COMPLETE 532**

1 STUDENTS 185

2 POINTS 74

3 STUDENT 68

4 GRADUATE 66

5 COURSE 43

6 REQUIREMENTS 36

7 COURSES 34

8 MINIMUM 28

9 PROGRAM 27

10 RESIDENT 26

*none

62 MUST ALSO ADD 528

63 MUST EXACTLY MATCH 525

64 MUST ALREADY EXIST 519

65 MUST ALSO POSSESS 519

66 MUST ALSO SAY 516

67 MUST ACTUALLY BE 513

68 MUST ALWAYS REMAIN 513

69 MUST THEREFORE HAVE 504

**70 MUST GENERALLY BE 502**

further collocates:

1 WITHIN (II ) 40

2 MADE (VVN ) 30

3 ABLE (JK ) 21

4 PAID (VVN ) 17

5 HOST (NN1 ) 14

*none

71 MUST ALSO HOLD 501

72 MUST ALSO REGISTER 498

73 MUST ALSO DO 495

74 MUST ONLY USE 492

**75 MUST SOMEHOW BE 476**

1 RELATED (VVN ) 23

2 LINKED (VVN ) 10

3 CONNECTED (VVN ) 8

4 CAPABLE (JJ ) 7

5 PUNISHED (VVN ) 6

*none

76 MUST USUALLY BE 475

77 MUST ALSO FOLLOW 474

**78 MUST ULTIMATELY BE 461**

1 JUDGED 12

2 APPROVED 11

3 BASED 11

4 GOD 10

5 SATISFIED 9

*none

79 MUST CAREFULLY CONSIDER 455

80 MUST ALSO NOTIFY 448

81 MUST EVER BE 447

82 MUST ALSO RECOGNIZE 442

83 MUST ALWAYS USE 424

84 MUST ALSO AGREE 414

**85 MUST CORRECTLY ANSWER 394**

*none

86 MUST ALSO ADDRESS 393

87 MUST ALSO SET 388

88 MUST ALSO BRING 381

89 MUST ALSO ACCEPT 380

90 MUST ALSO STATE 380

91 MUST STILL MEET 372

92 MUST ALSO FIND 371

93 MUST ALSO GET 369

94 MUST ALSO REPORT 369

95 MUST STILL PAY 369

96 MUST ALSO CHANGE 355

97 MUST ALSO SATISFY 355

98 MUST NEVER HAVE 347

**99 MUST SIMPLY BE 347**

*none

100 MUST ALSO SEND 346

## B1 (adverbs by EVP in the above strings):

correctly, either, generally, somehow, therefore

## B2

constantly, currently, necessarily, simply, successfully, surely

## C1

satisfactorily, ultimately

**Note how rare “completely” is actually found online.**

**1 MUST COMPLETELY FILL 66**

2 MUST COMPLETELY COVER 48

3 MUST COMPLETELY REMOVE 40

4 MUST COMPLETELY UNDERSTAND 39

5 MUST COMPLETELY AVOID 16

## What adverbs do our learners use at lower levels then?

For starters, there were zero examples in B1 in the ** Open Cambridge Learner Corpus (Uncoded)**! It seems then that the data set is different to that which the English Grammar Profile uses since there is an adverb range point for B1. Here are all the examples in the OCLCU for B2 (uncoded) put through

*antconc:*