which

phrasal verb + clause ‘work out how you did it’

At C2 in the English Vocabulary Profile: work out = to understand something or to find the answer to something by thinking about it A search in NOW corpus for which ‘question words’ follow phrasal verbs: work out _*Q 1 WORK OUT HOW 12286 Just give us five minutes, Mr Poirot, and I‘m sure we‘ll be able to work out how you did it. listen 2 WORK OUT WHAT 11671 …

phrasal verb + clause ‘work out how you did it’ Read More »

noun phrase + relative clause

Here are two student examples of complex noun phrases using relative clauses as complements: In addition, the people who lived in Korea 100 years ago didn’t have enough transportation. PELIC Arabic male level 5 writing class   Here are some of the things which I got. TLC speaking test female Kannada B2 A2 point 34 in CLAUSES is defined: a defining relative clause with ‘who‘ as the subject A2 point 20 in …

noun phrase + relative clause Read More »

WHICH (relative clause)

Here are 3 similar A2 points in the English Grammar Profile. Point 25 in the category of NOUNS is defined: post-modify noun phrases by using a non-defining relative clause. Point 23 in the category of CLAUSES is defined: non-defining relative clause with ‘which’ as the subject Point 12 is the same but: defining relative clause …

WHICH (relative clause) Read More »

which one

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 44 in the category of PRONOUNS/substitution is defined as: ‘one’ after ‘which’ in indirect questions to refer to one of two or more options. For example: If I were to show you these two urban scenes, and I were to ask you which one is more beautiful, which one would you say? TED *not all the examples are ‘indirect questions’ in the EGP examples. A search in iWeb for: which one …

which one Read More »

Many are the + NOUN + RELATIVE CLAUSE

In the English Grammar Profile, C2 point 117 in the category of PRONOUNS/quantity is defined as: complex noun phrases using an inverted form ‘Many’ + ‘are’ + noun phrase, followed by a relative clause, as a focusing device. FOR EXAMPLE:   NBC News Covid is having a devastating impact on children — and the vaccine won’t …

Many are the + NOUN + RELATIVE CLAUSE Read More »

indefinite pronoun + relative clause (focus)

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 79 in the category of PRONOUNS is defined as: indefinite pronouns with a relative clause to form complex noun phrases, to give focus *Note that there does not seem to be any other grammar point in the EGP or EVP that relates to indefinite pronoun + relative pronoun which …

indefinite pronoun + relative clause (focus) Read More »

fronted preposition + relative pronoun

Wh-relatives can be preceded by a preposition unlike ‘that’ or ‘zero’ relatives.  For example: This is the thing which I am interested in.  (stranded preposition) This is the thing in which I am interested. (fronted preposition) This is the thing that I am interested in. (stranding) This is the thing I am interested in. (‘zero’ relative pronoun and stranding) In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 12 in the category of PREPOSITIONs is defined as: preposition + relative pronoun as complement, to …

fronted preposition + relative pronoun Read More »

past perfect continuous (relative clause)

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 78 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous in relative clauses to give background information. A search in iWeb corpus for: who|that|which had been _vvg gives us the most common continuous verbs found in past perfect continuous relative clauses:   1 WHO HAD BEEN WORKING …

past perfect continuous (relative clause) Read More »

‘WH’ questions

‘WH-‘ questions expect a reply that supplies information. The wh-word can be a pronoun: What made you think that? (listen to this question) adverb: Where did it go? (listen) or a determiner: Which part? (listen) Here are many entries at A2 in the English Grammar Profile that catch the same question complexity. Point 2 in the category of …

‘WH’ questions Read More »

some of which | many of whom

Here’s an example of ‘some of’ modifying the relative pronoun ‘which’: I have many connections, some of which are less than reputable. Listen In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 98 in the category of PRONOUNS / quantity is defined as: ‘some of’, ‘many of’ to modify relative pronouns in a relative clause. A search on iWeb for ngrams of some|many of  _**q …

some of which | many of whom Read More »

the reason that | the place which + CLAUSE

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 Point 4 in the category of FOCUS is defined as ‘The reason (that)’, ‘The place (which)’ + clause as subject + ‘be’ for focus. — Expert example: But the reason that a lot of his fans are in the stands is because of another video. listen Student in speaking test example: I think the reason …

the reason that | the place which + CLAUSE Read More »

relative clause preposition (stranding)

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 102 in the category of CLAUSES that are relative is defined as: defining relative clauses and non-defining relative clauses ending in a preposition, with ‘who/which/that’ as the complement of the preposition. *This point overlaps other categories and is already covered here. Here are the 4 most common prepositions …

relative clause preposition (stranding) Read More »

evaluative relative clause ‘… which is good’

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 Point 100 in the category of CLAUSES is hard to find formally as it is more USE related as the relative clause: refers to a whole clause or sentence, often to express an opinion or evaluation or give a reason. This is also found in PEARSON’S: GSE 61 B2 …

evaluative relative clause ‘… which is good’ Read More »