passive + BY + noun phrase

A2 point 2 in the category of PASSIVES : ‘BY’ to add information about something already known. B1 point 12 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: passive with ‘by’ to give focus. *note any use of ‘by’ is at least A2 in the EVP. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: All Chinese fields are owned by the Chinese government. Chinese female Level 3 …

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