reported

THIS + time word

Point 42 in the category of DETERMINERS/demonstratives is defined as: ‘this’ with time and date words to refer to the past. Speaking test example: When did you go to London? I went this year. TLC, Male, Italy, B1 A search in iWeb for: _VVD this_D _NNT1 1 SAID THIS WEEK 5943 2 ANNOUNCED THIS WEEK 3344 3 PUBLISHED THIS WEEK …

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DIRECT SPEECH (initial or end position)

The following two B1 points are only different in the order. Point 4 in REPORTED SPEECH is defined as: DIRECT SPEECH, REPORTING CLAUSE, INITIAL POSITION: report speech and thought directly, using the reporting verb before the reporting clause Point 9 is END POSITION: report speech and thought directly using the reporting verb after the reporting …

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‘It is said that …’ (IT + passive)

Let’s take a look at an IELTS writing task 2 example with this grammar: It is argued that volunteering should be made a part of the school curriculum. In the above example, ‘is argued‘ forms the passive part.  The active form of this is probably: ‘People argue that…” In our example, ‘people’ is not important or maybe we don’t know who …

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past perfect simple (report of statements)

Point 75 in the category of PAST is defined as: Past perfect simple to report statements, where the main verb in the reporting clause is in the past simple. *This point overlaps B1. So we might surmise that ‘said’ and ‘told’ are B1 and other reporting verbs might be B2 within this structure. A search …

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present continuous passive + range of verbs

Point 21 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as PRESENT CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE with an increasing range of verbs A search in iWeb corpus: 1 IS BEING USED 45742 2 ARE BEING USED 25289 3 IS BEING HELD 21147 4 IS BEING MADE 14558 5 ARE BEING MADE 14380 IS BEING DEVELOPED   The Aviationist …

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present perfect simple negative passive

Point 20 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE, NEGATIVE often in the context of reporting reported speech   A search on iWeb for _vh _xx been _vvn: 1 HAS NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED 3143 2 HAS NOT BEEN SEEN 3058 3 HAS NOT BEEN RELEASED 2794 4 HAS NOT BEEN USED …

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had not been + PAST PARTICIPLE

Point 17 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: PAST PERFECT passive SIMPLE negative form. A search on iWeb corpus for had _xx been _vvn The most common in ranking order are: SEEN, MADE, GIVEN, USED, PAID, TOLD, and TAKEN. Ranked 9 is ‘HAD NOT BEEN INFORMED’    台北時報 KMT slams DPP’s pork import …

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‘It is better to give than to receive.’ (comparative non-finite clause)

Here are some examples of a wide range of comparative non-finite clauses: The numbers are higher than expected. (using a past participle/adjective) To be kind is more important than to be right. (using TO infinitive) It may now be cheaper to buy than to rent. (using TO infinitive) B2 Point 103 in the category of CLAUSES & comparatives is defined …

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