replaced

if + necessary | any | anything | in doubt (subject and verb ellipsis)

Here are EXPERT EXAMPLES of subject and verb ellipsis after ‘if’: When you speak your character’s words, you can hear whether they sound natural, and fix them if necessary. TED *If necessary = if it is necessary. Unlike the billions of people who have few options, if any, due to war, poverty, or illness, you have plentiful opportunities to live decisively. TED *if any = if there are any.     Planet Radio If in doubt, don’t drive. *if in doubt = in you are in …

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passive + BY + noun phrase

In the English Grammar Profile, A2 point 2 in the category of PASSIVES : ‘BY’ to add information about something already known. B1 point 12 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: passive with ‘by’ to give focus. All the A2 examples use the pronoun IT  + is|was + past participle  + by The one …

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present continuous passive + range of verbs

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 21 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as PRESENT CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE with an increasing range of verbs A search in iWeb corpus: 1 IS BEING USED 45742 2 ARE BEING USED 25289 3 IS BEING HELD 21147 4 IS BEING MADE 14558 5 ARE BEING MADE 14380 …

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going | have | need | want + TO BE + past participle

Here’s an example of an infinitive passive structure. He said it was the summation of the parts working together in such a way that nothing needed to be added, taken away, or altered. listen The English Grammar Profile B1 point 4 in the category of passives is defined as: an infinitive after a limited number of forms including ‘going to’, ‘have to’, ‘need to’, ‘want to’. *Note that Pearson lists this as: GSE 59 B2 …

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