or

and | but | or | because

A1 points 1-7 in the English Grammar Profile are listed as: single word conjunctions (‘and, but, or’): to connect single nouns and adjectives. to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences. ‘and’ and ‘or’ before the final item in a list. ‘but’ to add unexpected contrast. ‘because’ as a subordinating conjunction to introduce a subordinate clause. An …

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‘SO’ (end of the sentence)

I don’t quite trust the CEFR level Pearson gives to the following grammar construct. GSE 58 B1+ is defined: ‘so’ in sentence-final positions as a placeholder (substitute) for verbs and verb phrases. It was too expensive. – I told you so. John is from Seattle. – I thought so.   ‘So’ has many possible meanings and uses near the end of sentences.  When we look at the English …

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word OR word ? (alternative questions)

A2 Point 14 in the category of QUESTIONS is defined as: alternative questions with two words from the same class combined with ‘or’. *note that there is a b1 point for two clauses joined with ‘or’ in a question. A few searches on iWeb for: _NN or NN ? 1 PRODUCT OR SERVICE? 1217 2 …

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or something else?

Point 15 in the category of QUESTIONs is defined as: VAGUE alternative question with ‘or something else’ as the second alternative to a noun phrase, to refer to something non-specific. FOR EXAMPLE: Ultimately, does longer life as we know it come down to diet, exercise, medicine, or something else? A search in iWeb for: _N or something else ? 1 ISSUE OR SOMETHING ELSE ? …

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phrase + OR + phrase ? (alternative question)

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 22 in the category of QUESTIONS is defined as: alternative questions with two phrases combined with ‘or’. If we follow the patterns in the EGP examples and search in iWeb with them: or _I _A _NN ? 1 OR IN THE FUTURE? 152 EXAMPLE: Where can we see you perform next or in the future? missguided.co.uk …

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or not?

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 23 in the category of QUESTIONS is defined as: alternative questions using ‘or not’ to substitute for a clause, sometimes to express annoyance or impatience An iWeb search for: * * or not ? 1 THIS EARNING OR NOT ? 287 2 GOOD IDEA OR NOT ? 122 Is drinking fruit juices a good idea or not? …

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clause OR clause ? (question)

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 27 in the category of QUESTIONS is defined as: alternative questions with two clauses combined with ‘or’. A search in iWeb for or _V _P * ? 1 OR AM I WRONG? 621 2 OR DOES IT MATTER? 287   Villanovan Do you view all these changes in entertainment as good or bad, or does it matter at all? *Note …

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COMBINING CLAUSES OF THE SAME TYPE

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 50 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: combine clauses of the same type, main or subordinate, finite or non-finite, with conjunctions. *This is difficult to interpret exactly because at A1, students can omit the subject after ‘and’ or ‘or’. We can start by looking at the structure of …

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ellipted modal – alternative question

C1 English Grammar Profile point 30 in the category of QUESTIONS is defined as: alternative questions with two clauses and ellipsis (of the modal) in the second clause, often as a hedging device. *Both of the English Grammar Profile examples contain ‘maybe’ and do not invert as questions usually do.  They both seem like weak …

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either * or

As a conjunction, ‘either’ is used before the first of two or more alternatives, and then the other alternative is introduced by ‘or’. Here’s an example of using the ‘either or’ structure. And so, to be anti-racist, again, is to recognize that there are only two causes of racial inequity:  either there’s something wrong with people, or there’s something wrong with power and policy. listen There are two almost identical points in the English Grammar Profile for the following grammar. C1 …

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‘whether * or not’ (conditional clause)

The ‘whether or not’ structure means ‘it is not important which possibility is true’.  Here’s an expert example of using ‘whether + clause + or not, + clause’: Whether we like it or not, motivation comes and motivation goes. TED The English Grammar Profile C2 point 130 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: ‘WHETHER OR NOT’, to introduce conditions in formal contexts. Pearson lists this at …

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