occurred

present perfect simple negative (YET)

Here’s a student example of ‘present perfect simple negative‘: Today I can play very well with someone, even when I haven’t played for a long time. Portuguese female level 3 writing. A2 point 5 in the category of  NEGATION/AUXILIARY VERBS is defined: negative statements of main verbs in the present continuous and present perfect with ‘be’ and ‘have’ + ‘not/n’t’. A2 point 13 in the category of PAST is defined: …

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present perfect simple + SINCE

Point 33 in the category of PAST is defined as: present perfect simple + ‘since’ to talk about duration. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I have read a lot of books about cooking since then. Chinese male, level 3 writing class.   We have been friends since we were high-school students. Korean female, level 3 writing class. An iWeb search for: _VH _VVN since *we removed ‘had’ 1 HAS CHANGED SINCE 11097 …

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ordering past events

Point 35 in the category of PAST is defined: past simple to order sequences of events in the past, in the context of narratives. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I looked at the sheet and thought about it and then I continued following my sheet. When I noticed that I should have arrived, I called my brother and he told me that I had the wrong directions. Arabic male, level 5 grammar class. Two of the EGP examples use ‘and then’ while one only uses ‘and’ to connect past …

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had not + PAST PARTICIPLE

Point 24 in the category of PAST perfect simple: negative forms. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: At that time, I had not found my job and I had a lot of free time. Chinese male, level 3 writing class. A search on iWeb for: _VHD _XX _VVN 1 HAD N’T SEEN 10519 2 HAD NOT SEEN 8370 3 HAD N’T HEARD 6433 4 HAD N’T THOUGHT 5405 5 …

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might | may not + have + PAST PARTICIPLE (past possibility)

Here are the most common verbs found in this grammar structure with examples:

You MIGHT NOT HAVE KNOWN about the party.
She MIGHT NOT HAVE THOUGHT you were serious.
They MIGHT NOT HAVE HEARD that you were coming.

The negative past modal meaning expressed here is of possibility.

if + PAST PERFECT + MODAL VERBS

C1 point 112 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: Conditional subordinate clauses with ‘if’ + the past perfect simple and modal verb + ‘have’ + ‘-ed’ in the main clause, to talk about imagined situations in the past, often with regret. *Note the same definition with ‘would‘ is listed at B1!  Basically, this means that for …

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may have + PAST PARTICIPLE

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 163 MODALITY is defined as: ‘may’ in phrases such as ‘as you may know’, or ‘as you may have’ + ‘-ed’ to focus the reader on shared knowledge. This partly overlaps point 168 MODALITY and  PAST AFFIRMATIVE of ‘may have’ + ‘-ed’ to talk about possibility in the …

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will have + PAST PARTICIPLE (future perfect)

There are 5 formally related grammar points in the English Grammar Profile in the category of FUTURE/perfect simple with ‘will.’  Many of them overlap and at C1 they are very rare and hard to find in corpora.  An example from the iWeb corpus of the future perfect form used for a polite assumption about the …

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