The adverb ‘otherwise‘ has 3 listings in the English Vocabulary Profile. WHAT WOULD HAPPEN B1 used after an order or suggestion to show what the result will be if you do not follow that order or suggestion A search in the NOW corpus for: , otherwise _P _V 1 , OTHERWISE IT WILL 1394 There …

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modal verb + YET

At C2 in the English Vocabulary Profile: could/may/might, etc. yet used to say there is still a possibility that something will happen For example: We may yet one day realize the vision of having the internet in our brains. TED And it seems like it‘s very possible that your nation, despite, actually because of the intense problems you face,  you may yet be the warning light to the world that shines most visibly, most powerfully. TED   NOW corpus search for: _VM yet _VVI 1 MAY YET PROVE 889 2 COULD YET PROVE 662 3 …

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English lexical bundles and their most frequent equivalent forms in French

In this post, we put common lexical bundles that French EFL students use in their writing, through our GRAMMAR PROFILER.  Magali Paquot wrote a paper about Lexical bundles.  Here are the significant forms found in the ICLE – FR: Here are our expert examples: You‘ll be tempted to tear it off. listen They may never be considered as such by religion, but they are just as important as the ones in your textbooks. listen Kaleb‘s art can be viewed as deeply rooted in the pop minimalism of Aureur or Baer. …

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May be vs maybe (possibility)

Here we explain the differences between may be and maybe ‘maybe‘ is usually an adverb that means ‘perhaps’ or ‘possibly’. ‘may‘ is usually a modal auxiliary verb with many uses related to ‘possibility’, ‘permission’ etc. He is in Vietnam.  (sure.) He may be in Vietnam. (50% sure.) Maybe, he is in Vietnam. (50% sure.) ‘be’ …

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may not

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 94 in the category of MODALITY is defined:

‘may’ negative

there + MODAL VERB + BE

Existential “there + BE” is a grammatical construction that asserts the existence or non-existence of something. It is usually followed by a noun phrase that is the real subject of the sentence. For example:
There is a book on the table.
There are many stars in the sky.
Modal verbs are verbs that express possibility, necessity, obligation, permission, etc. They can be used with existential “there + BE” to hedge claims or express hypothetical situations. For example:
There may be no simple solution to this problem.
There should be some food in the fridge.

however | whoever | whatever + may + seem

Point 213 in MODALITY is defined as: ‘may’ in a subordinate clause expressing concession with ‘however’, ‘whatever’, ‘whoever’ + ‘it or this may be or seem Our examples: All you’ve got to go on is streams of electrical impulses, which are only indirectly related to things in the world, whatever they may be.     Compromises can be struck, however difficult it yet may be.     A search in iWeb for: however _JJ it|this may_V be|seem 1 …

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C1 point 112 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: Conditional subordinate clauses with ‘if’ + the past perfect simple and modal verb + ‘have’ + ‘-ed’ in the main clause, to talk about imagined situations in the past, often with regret. *Note the same definition with ‘would‘ is listed at B1!  Basically, this means that for …



Linking adverbs, also known as conjunctive adverbs, are used to connect ideas between two independent clauses or sentences. They help to show the relationship between these ideas. Here’s how the adverbs ‘also’, ‘however’ and the conjunction ‘so’ function in this capacity: Also: This adverb is used to add information or express agreement with the previous …


may … but (unexpected)

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 146 in MODALITY for OPINIONs is defined as: ‘may’ … ‘but’ to express an unexpected point of view. Here are some expert examples: You may not be able to leave every job where you‘re treated unfairly, but in a perfect world, one without racism and sexism and the frictions associated with finding a new job,  it‘s your sense of fairness that would let you know when it was time to move on. listen You may have no tongue, but there is nothing wrong with your ears. listen A search on iWeb corpus for may * * * * but 1 MAY …

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May I?

There are four entries in the English Grammar Profile that capture “May I…?”  Point 97 are polite questions.  They probably are not really asking for permission.  119 is literally asking for permission.  Yet, for the purposes of designating a complexity level, this matters little.  The interpretation of this structure becomes more difficult once we jump …

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