had

past perfect continuous passive

Because there is no past perfect continuous passive in the English Grammar Profile, we can say it is C2. A search in NOW corpus shows that this grammar is extremely rare. 1   HAD BEEN BEING TREATED 10 The woman had left the Ulster Hospital, Dundonald, where she had been being treated. belfastlive.co.uk 2   HAD BEEN BEING ABUSED 7 3   ‘D BEEN BEING ABUSED 7 4   HAD …

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had better

Surprisingly, there is no entry in the English Grammar Profile for the phrase ‘had better’.  In the English Vocabulary Profile, ‘had better’ with the meaning ‘should’ is listed at A2. You had better get out of this room and back downstairs right away. listen A search for collocates in COCA of: had better_RRR 1 START 82 2 PREPARED 59 You had better be prepared to push yourself harder than …

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WISH + past simple

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 21 in the category of PAST is defined as: past simple with ‘wish (that)’ to express regret that things are not different. TLC STUDENT SPEAKING TEST EXAMPLE: I listen to music a lot and sometimes I wish that my life was a musical. male Spain C2 EXPERT EXAMPLES:  I wish I never called. TED There were many moments growing up where I wished that I was white. TED *Note that past perfect is also possible with …

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had not + PAST PARTICIPLE

Point 24 in the category of PAST perfect simple: negative forms. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: At that time, I had not found my job and I had a lot of free time. Chinese male, level 3 writing class. A search on iWeb for: _VHD _XX _VVN 1 HAD N’T SEEN 10519 2 HAD NOT SEEN 8370 3 HAD N’T HEARD 6433 4 HAD N’T THOUGHT 5405 5 …

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had been + VERBing

Point 27 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous: an action or event which began before a point in the past and was still continuing up to that point, often with ‘for’ or ‘since’, to give background information. Point 32 in the PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous: background action …

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said | told * that + CLAUSE (tense shift)

Point 8 in REPORTED SPEECH is defined as: report statements using a reporting clause with ‘say’ or ‘tell’ + ‘that-‘clause, with a pronoun and tense shift where relevant *At A2 students can already use ‘said’ or ‘tell’ with a pronoun shift.  Therefore, we might surmise that at B1 it must include a tense shift.  There …

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second & third conditonal

Here is another post of some overlapping and clashing grammar points from different categories in the English Grammar Profile.  B1 point 72 clashes with the general definition at C1. B1 Point 42 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: ‘IF’ + PAST SIMPLE + WOULD, FUTURE, (SECOND CONDITIONAL) imagined situation, often in the context …

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past perfect simple affirmative

Here are examples of past perfect simple affirmative: Instead, the Ryans had decided to take a more old-fashioned route. context I must say I‘d hoped for better. listen In the English Grammar Profile, B1 points 34 in the category of PAST are defined as: past perfect simple: a time before another time in the past. and B1 point 38 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect …

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past perfect simple (inversion)

In the English Grammar Profile, C1 point 85 in the category of PAST is defined as: invert the subject and affirmative auxiliary verb to talk about imagined situations in the past, often with regret, in formal contexts *although a following modal verb ‘could’ or ‘would’ is not mentioned in the description above, they do follow in the …

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if + PAST PERFECT + MODAL VERBS

C1 point 112 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: Conditional subordinate clauses with ‘if’ + the past perfect simple and modal verb + ‘have’ + ‘-ed’ in the main clause, to talk about imagined situations in the past, often with regret. *Note the same definition with ‘would‘ is listed at B1!  Basically, this means that for …

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IF ONLY | WISH + past perfect simple

Point 79 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect simple, IMAGINED PAST, the affirmative form after ‘if only’, and the affirmative and negative forms after ‘wish’ to talk about regret. This is a rare match of grammar levels with Pearons’ GSE 62 B2: If only I’d worked harder. I wish we’d bought that house. if only * _vhd _vvn 1 …

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past perfect continuous (relative clause)

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 78 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous in relative clauses to give background information. A search in iWeb corpus for: who|that|which had been _vvg gives us the most common continuous verbs found in past perfect continuous relative clauses:   1 WHO HAD BEEN WORKING …

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past perfect continuous + adverb ‘had already been doing’

B2 English Grammar Profile point 76 in the category of PAST is: past perfect continuous WITH ADVERBS in the normal mid position For example: I had just been doing some reading. listen An iWeb search for: had _rr been _vvg 1 HAD ALREADY BEEN WORKING 359 2 HAD ALREADY BEEN USING 210 3 HAD PREVIOUSLY BEEN USING 122 4 HAD ALSO …

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past perfect simple (report of statements)

Point 75 in the category of PAST is defined as: Past perfect simple to report statements, where the main verb in the reporting clause is in the past simple. *This point overlaps B1. So we might surmise that ‘said’ and ‘told’ are B1 and other reporting verbs might be B2 within this structure. A search …

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