forced

gerund (passive complement)

Here’s a STUDENT EXAMPLE: Therefore, people should educate themselves on their human rights and the basic human rights that other nations have in order to avoid being deceived. PELIC Arabic female level 4 writing class. GSE 64 B2 NP + VP +VP gerund (passive)   An iWeb search for: * _VV being _VVN * 1 TO AVOID BEING HIT BY 313 2 TO AVOID BEING HIT . 185 3 N’T LIKE BEING TOLD WHAT 182 …

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WILL HAVE BEEN + PP (future perfect passive)

The future perfect passive is formed with the structure:  WILL HAVE BEEN + PASSIVE PARTICIPLE Here’s an EXPERT EXAMPLE of future perfect passive: If you live to 90, then 32 years will have been spent entirely asleep. TED The ending -t in (spent) is an irregular inflection for the passive participle, which regularly ends in -ed: PEARSON GSE 67 B2+ future perfect passive simple …

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BEING + past participle ‘Being born in the …’

C1 point 32 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: NON-FINITE CLAUSES ‘-ing’ form as a subordinate clause or a noun clause to give explanatory background information. A search in the iWeb corpus for . Being _VVN * * gives us our being + past participle list   1 . BEING LOCATED IN THE …

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if + past participle

C1 English Grammar Profile point 106 in CLAUSES is defined as: ellipted ‘if’ clauses with ‘if’ + ‘-ed’ form. A search in iWeb for: if _VVN 1 IF NEEDED 103856 If needed, I will speak for you. 2 IF DESIRED 43002 3 IF REQUIRED 42676 4 IF USED 28178 5 IF GIVEN 14680 6 IF …

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RATHER THAN + non-finite clause | phrase

Let’s look at how ‘rather than‘ is used to compare.  In the English Vocabulary Profile, at B1 the meaning is:  ‘instead of ‘ I‘d like coffee rather than tea. I usually wear a swimsuit rather than shorts. In the above examples: coffee, tea, a swimsuit, shorts are nouns or noun phrases, so ‘rather than‘ or ‘instead of‘ are complex prepositions. Here’s a student example …

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After + having | being + PAST PARTICIPLE

Let’s explain some examples of the grammar structure: ‘after being pp‘ and ‘after having pp‘: After being told these stories, I started thinking.                         (psychic-experiences.com) I moved back to India after having spent six years in the US.  (indix.com) Firstly, ‘after’ is a preposition before a complement ‘verb-ing’ clause.  For example, …

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Inversion in clauses with conditions and formality

Here are examples of subject – auxiliary verb inversion replacing the usual ‘if’: Had I known what was inside, I would have smoked it. Listen   Should you desire, I can provide character references. Listen   Were I allowed to defend myself, I could have proven this to you. context This is another post that points at overlapping points on the English Grammar Profile.  Parts of two points are worded differently but basically locate the same structure for “should” starting a sentence.  …

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