In the English Vocabulary Profile, the noun ‘determination’ is listed at B2 with the meaning: when someone continues trying to do something, although it is very difficult For example: Fretting arises from our determination to have our own way. listen ‘determination’ is often followed by an infinitive. A search in iWeb corpus for: determination TO _VVI 1 DETERMINATION TO MAKE 1407 2 DETERMINATION TO …

determination Read More »

COULD (range)

A2 point 52 in MODALITY:

‘could’ with a limited range of verbs to make suggestions.

A2 point 27 in MODALITY:

negative form

B1 point 78 in MODALITY:

affirmative form of ‘could’ to talk about ability.

B1 point 79 in MODALITY:

‘could’ with an increasing range of verbs to make suggestions.

am|is|are + going + to-INFINITVE (future)

Here are examples of ‘BE going to’ with A1 infinitives: It is going to take time. Listen Are you going to do anything about it? Listen This is a group of people who want to tell you your work is going to live. listen I need a video clip, and you‘re gonna give it to me. listen   ‘Snow’ is A2 in the English Vocabulary Profile: The weather forecast said it‘s going to snow tonight. listen In the English Grammar Profile, in the category of FUTURE: B1 Point 31 is defined: ‘be going …

am|is|are + going + to-INFINITVE (future) Read More »

future in the past

The English Grammar Profile (EGP) B1 point 23 in the category of future is defined: past form of ‘be’ + ‘going to’ (future in the past) EGP B1 point 36 in FUTURE  is defined: PLANS IN THE PAST (often followed by ‘but’) to talk about a plan, sometimes one that may have changed. These grammar …

future in the past Read More »


In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 117 in the category of MODALITY is defined: ‘have to’ as an infinitive form *This will overlap sometimes with B2 adjectives followed by an infinitive. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: A child is very expensive, this causes parents to have to work more, which can lead to frustration and anger. Taiwanese female, level 4 writing class. An iWeb search for: * _TO have _TO _VVI 1 …

TO HAVE TO Read More »

there + MODAL VERB + BE

Existential “there + BE” is a grammatical construction that asserts the existence or non-existence of something. It is usually followed by a noun phrase that is the real subject of the sentence. For example:
There is a book on the table.
There are many stars in the sky.
Modal verbs are verbs that express possibility, necessity, obligation, permission, etc. They can be used with existential “there + BE” to hedge claims or express hypothetical situations. For example:
There may be no simple solution to this problem.
There should be some food in the fridge.

if you should

C1 points: 114 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: subordinate conditional clauses with ‘if you should’, in polite, formal contexts *Most of the English Grammar Profile examples include: ‘if you should have any’ (questions|concerns|problems) + don’t hesitate…’ Therefore, this is offering help or giving advice.  ‘should’ here gives a slight feeling of  ‘it is unlikely’ or …

if you should Read More »

verb + verb-ING

Here are two points in the English Grammar Profile in the category of Verb patterns that depend on vocabulary range: Point 29 is B1 and defined as: a limited range of verbs followed by an ‘-ing’ form. Point 56 is B2 and is defined as: an increasing range of verbs followed by an ‘-ing’ form. …

verb + verb-ING Read More »

going | have | need | want + TO BE + past participle

Here’s an example of an infinitive passive structure. He said it was the summation of the parts working together in such a way that nothing needed to be added, taken away, or altered. listen The English Grammar Profile B1 point 4 in the category of passives is defined as: an infinitive after a limited number of forms including ‘going to’, ‘have to’, ‘need to’, ‘want to’. *Note that Pearson lists this as: GSE 59 B2 …

going | have | need | want + TO BE + past participle Read More »

MUST questions

Affirmative must questions are questions that use the modal verb must in the affirmative form. The modal verb must expresses obligation or necessity. In affirmative must questions, the subject of the verb must is inverted, meaning that the subject comes before the verb. For example:

Must I do my homework?
Must you go now?
Must we help them?
In these questions, the speaker is asking the listener if they are obliged or required to do something. The answer to these questions can be yes or no.