caused

passive + BY + noun phrase

A2 point 2 in the category of PASSIVES : ‘BY’ to add information about something already known. B1 point 12 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: passive with ‘by’ to give focus. *note any use of ‘by’ is at least A2 in the EVP. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: All Chinese fields are owned by the Chinese government. Chinese female Level 3 …

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if + PAST PERFECT + MODAL VERBS

Point 112 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: Conditional subordinate clauses with ‘if’ + the past perfect simple and modal verb + ‘have’ + ‘-ed’ in the main clause, to talk about imagined situations in the past, often with regret. *Note the same definition with ‘would’ is listed at B1! iWeb doesn’t allow long searches such …

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will have + PAST PARTICIPLE (future perfect)

There are 5 formally related grammar points in the English Grammar Profile in the category of FUTURE/perfect simple with ‘will.’ B1 Point 48 is defined as AFFIRMATIVE B2 point 52 is defined as: something which is expected to be completed (or not completed) by a certain point in the future. B2 point 40 is defined …

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