caused

passive + BY + noun phrase

A2 point 2 in the category of PASSIVES : ‘BY’ to add information about something already known. B1 point 12 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: passive with ‘by’ to give focus. *note any use of ‘by’ is at least A2 in the EVP. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: All Chinese fields are owned by the Chinese government. Chinese female Level 3 …

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if + PAST PERFECT + MODAL VERBS

C1 point 112 in CLAUSES/conditional is defined as: Conditional subordinate clauses with ‘if’ + the past perfect simple and modal verb + ‘have’ + ‘-ed’ in the main clause, to talk about imagined situations in the past, often with regret. *Note the same definition with ‘would‘ is listed at B1!  Basically, this means that for …

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will have + PAST PARTICIPLE (future perfect)

There are 5 formally related grammar points in the English Grammar Profile in the category of FUTURE/perfect simple with ‘will.’  Many of them overlap and at C1 they are very rare and hard to find in corpora.  An example from the iWeb corpus of the future perfect form used for a polite assumption about the …

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