bound

passive + BY + noun phrase

A2 point 2 in the category of PASSIVES : ‘BY’ to add information about something already known. B1 point 12 in the category of PASSIVES is defined as: passive with ‘by’ to give focus. *note any use of ‘by’ is at least A2 in the EVP. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: All Chinese fields are owned by the Chinese government. Chinese female Level 3 …

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‘It is said that …’ (IT + passive)

Let’s take a look at an IELTS writing task 2 example with this grammar: It is argued that volunteering should be made a part of the school curriculum. In the above example, ‘is argued‘ forms the passive part.  The active form of this is probably: ‘People argue that…” In our example, ‘people’ is not important or maybe we don’t know who …

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BE + bound | likely | meant | obliged + TO

*There is an interactive word tree exercise for this B2 grammar here. Point 152 in MODALITY overlaps many other modality points.  So here we will cover those not already covered elsewhere. It is defined as: the full range of expressions with ‘be’ + infinitive (‘be likely to’, ‘be due to’, ‘be meant to’, ‘be bound …

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‘BE’ + to infinitive | ‘BE’ + due to infinitive

In the English Grammar Profile (EGP), there are three similar points in the category of Future expressions with ‘BE’ at B2 in the English Grammar Profile. 47  ‘be due to’ and, more formally, ‘be to’ talk about things that are scheduled or expected. 53 OBLIGATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS WITH ‘BE TO’ 56 present form of ‘be’ …

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